Incisional Therapies: Complications of Glaucoma Surgery

  • Marlene R. Moster
  • Augusto Azuara-Blanco


A guarded filtration procedure, frequently called trabeculectomy, has been the gold standard for initial surgery for glaucoma almost since its inception in the late 1960s (Fig. 70.1). The current form of this procedure has been attributed to Cairns. Overall, severe visual loss is uncommon, but the incidence of transient complications is high. For example, in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS), early complications occurred in 50% of 465 trabeculectomies. The most frequent complications were shallow or flat anterior chamber (13%), encapsulated bleb (12%), ptosis (12%), serous choroidal detachment (11%), and hyphema (10%). Suprachoroidal hemorrhage occurred in 0.7% of cases, and there were no cases of endophthalmitis. In the United Kingdom, a national survey of trabeculectomy was conducted, and of 1,240 reported cases, early complications were reported in 46% and late complications in 42% of cases. The most common early complications were hyphema (24%), shallow anterior chamber (23%), hypotony (24%), wound leak (17%), and choroidal detachment (14%). The most frequent late complications were cataract (20%), visual loss (18%), and encapsulated bleb (3%). Recently, the tube versus trabeculectomy (TVT) study in 212 patients found intraoperative complications in 10 and 7% of cases during trabeculectomy and tube surgery, respectively, and postoperative complications in 57 and 34% of patients after trabeculectomy and tube surgery, respectively. Most complications were self-limited.


Anterior Chamber Fibrin Glue Glaucoma Surgery Choroidal Detachment Scleral Flap 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cairns JE. Trabeculectomy. Preliminary report of a new method. Am J Ophthalmol. 1968;66:673–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jampel HD, Musch DC, Gillespie BW, et al. Perioperative complications of trabeculectomy in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Edmunds B, Thompson JR, Salmon JF, et al. The national survey of trabeculectomy. III. Early and late complications. Eye. 2002;16:297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gedde SJ, Herndon LW, Brandt JD, et al. Surgical complications in the tube versus trabeculectomy study during the first year of follow up. Am J Opthalmol. 2007;143:23–31.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azuara-Blanco A, Katz LJ. Dysfunctional filtering blebs. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998;43:93–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blok MDW, Kok JHC, van Mil C, et al. Use of the megasoft bandage lens for treatment of complications after trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;110:264–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simmons RJ, Kimbrough RL. Shell tamponade in filtering surgery for glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg. 1984;10:17–34.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fink AJ, Boys-Smith JW, Brear R. Management of large filtering blebs with the argon laser. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;101:695–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lynch MG, Roesch M, Brown RH. Remodeling filtering blebs with the Neodynium:YAG laser. Ophthalmology. 1986;103:1700–1705.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leen MM, Moster MR, Katz LJ, et al. Management of overfiltering and leaking blebs with autologous blood injection. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1050–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wise JB. Treatment of chronic postfiltration hypotony by intrableb injection of autologous blood. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:827–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lu DW, Azuara-Blanco A, Katz LJ. Severe visual loss after autologous blood injection for mitomycin-associated hypotony maculopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28:244–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schwartz GF, Robin AL, Wilson RP, et al. Resuturing the scleral flap leads to resolution of hypotony maculopathy. J Glaucoma. 1996;5:246–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haynes WL, Alward WLM. Rapid visual recovery and long-term intraocular pressure control after donor scleral-patch grafting for trabeculectomy-induced hypotony maculopathy. J Glaucoma. 1994;4:200–201.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suner IJ, Greenfield DS, Miller MP, et al. Hypotony maculopathy after filtering surgery with mitomycin-C: incidence and treatment. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:207–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zacharia PT, Deppermann SR, Schuman JS. Ocular hypotony after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:314–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shields MB, Scroggs MW, Sloop CM, et al. Clinical and histopathologic observations concerning hypotony after trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:673–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Costa VP, Wilson RP, Moster MR, et al. Hypotony maculopathy following the use of topical mitomycin C in glaucoma filtration surgery. Ophthalmic Surg. 1993;24:389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Melamed S, Ashkenazi I, Glovinski J, et al. Tight scleral flap trabeculectomy with postoperative laser suture lysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;109:303–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chopra H, Goldenfeld M, Krupin T, et al. Early postoperative titration of bleb function: argon laser suture lysis and removable sutures in trabeculectomy. J Glaucoma. 1992;1:54–57.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Traverso CE, Greenidge KC, Spaeth GL, et al. Focal pressure: a new method to encourage filtration after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg. 1984;15:62–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morinelli EN, Sidoti PA, Heuer DK, et al. Laser suture lysis after mitomycin C trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:306–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pappa KS, Derick RJ, Weber PA, et al. Late argon laser suture lysis after mitomycin C trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1268–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilson RP. Technical advances in filtration surgery. In: McAllister JA, Wilson RP, eds. Glaucoma. Boston: Butterworths; 1986:243–350.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohen JS, Osher RH. Releasable scleral flap suture. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 1988;1:187–197.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johnstone MA, Wellington DP, Ziel CJ. A releasable scleral-flap tamponade suture for guarded filtration surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tezel G, Kolker AE, Kass MA, Wax MB. Late removal of releasable sutures after trabeculectomy or combined trabeculectomy with cataract extraction supplemented with antifibrotics. J Glaucoma. 1998;7:75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cantor LB, Katz LJ, Spaeth GL. Complications of surgery in glaucoma: suprachoroidal expulsive hemorrhage in glaucoma patients undergoing intraocular surgery. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:1266–1270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruderman JM, Harbin TS, Campbell DG. Postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhage following filtering procedures. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:201–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Givens K, Shields MB. Suprachoroidal hemorrhage after glaucoma filtering surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103:689–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frenkel REP, Shin DH. Prevention and management of delayed suprachoroidal hemorrhage after filtration surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:1459–1463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Spaeth GL, Baez KA. Long-term prognosis of eyes having had operative suprachoroidal expulsive hemorrhage. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1994;3:159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    WuDunn D, Ryser D, Cantor LB. Surgical drainage of choroidal effusions following glaucoma surgery. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Quigley HA, Frieadman DS, Congdon NG. Possible mechanisms of primary angle-closure and malignant glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2003;12:167–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruben S, Tsai J, Hitchings RA. Malignant glaucoma and its management. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997;81:163–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Epstein DL, Steinert RF, Puliafito CA. Neodynium:YAG laser therapy to the anterior hyaloid in aphakic malignant (ciliary block) glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1980;87:1155–1159.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lois N, Wong D, Groenwald C. New surgical approach in the management of pseudophakic malignant glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:780–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Byrnes GA, Leen MM, Wong TP, et al. Vitrectomy for ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:1308–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Azuara-Blanco A, Katz LJ, Gandham S, et al. Pars plana tube insertion of aqueous shunt with vitrectomy in malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;116:808–810.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lichter PR, Ravin JG. Risk of sudden visual loss after glaucoma surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;78:1009–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Costa VP, Smith M, Spaeth GL, et al. Loss of visual acuity after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:599–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Law SK, Nguyen AM, Coleman AL, et al. Severe loss of central vision in patients with advanced glaucoma undergoing trabeculectomy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1044–1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moster MR, Moster ML. Wipe-out: a complication of glaucoma surgery or a just a blast from the past. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:705–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eke T. Anesthesia for glaucoma surgery. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2006;19:245–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kumar CM, Dowd TC, Dodds C, et al. Orbital swelling following peribulbar and sub Tenon’s anaesthesia. Eye. 2004;18:418–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hulbert MF, Yang YC, Pennefather PM, et al. Pulsatile ocular blood flow and intraocular pressure during retrobulbar injection of lignocaine: influence of additives. J Glaucoma. 1998;7:413–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huber KK, Remky A. Effect of retrobulbar versus subconjunctival anaesthesia on retrobulbar haemodynamics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:719–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zalta AH, Wieder RH. Closure of leaking filtering blebs with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991;75:170–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Asrani SG, Wilenski JT. Management of bleb leaks after glaucoma filtering surgery. Use of autologous fibrin tissue glue as an alternative. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:294–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kajiwara K. Repair of a leaking bleb with fibrin glue. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;109:599–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wilensky JT. Management of late bleb leaks following glaucoma filtering surgery. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1992;93:161–168.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wadhwani RA, Resham A, Bellows AR, et al. Surgical repair of leaking filtering blebs. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1681–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burnstein AL, WuDunn D, Knotts L, et al. Conjunctival advancement versus nonincisional treatment for late-onset glaucoma filtering bleb leaks. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:71–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Catoria Y, Wudunn D, Cantor LB. Revision of dysfunctional filtering blebs by conjunctival advancement with bleb preservation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:574–579.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harris L, Yang G, Feldman RN, et al. Autologous conjunctival resurfacing of leaking filtering blebs. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1675–1680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Maumenee AE. External filtering operations for glaucoma: the mechanism of function and failure. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Soc. 1960;58:319–328.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Starita RJ, Fellman RL, Spaeth GL, et al. Short- and long-term effects of postoperative corticosteroids on trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:938–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Joshi AB, Parrish RK 2nd, Feuer WF. 2002 survey of the American Glaucoma Society: practice preferences for glaucoma surgery and antifibrotic use. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:172–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Siriwardena D, Edmunds B, Wormald RP, et al. National survey of antimetabolite use in glaucoma surgery in the United Kingdom. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:873–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldenfeld M, Krupin T, Ruderman JM, et al. 5-fluorouracil in initial trabeculectomy. A prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1024–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    The Fluorouracil Filtering Surgery Study Group. Five-year follow-up of the Fluorouracil Filtering Surgery Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:349–366.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kitazawa Y, Suemori-Matsushita H, Yamamoto T, et al. Low-dose and high-dose mitomycin trabeculectomy as an initial surgery in primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1624–1628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wu-Dunn D, Cantor LB, Palanca-Capistrano AM, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing intraoperative 5-fluorouracil versus mitomycin C in primary trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:521–528.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Borisuth NS, Phillips B, Krupin T. The risk profile of glaucoma filtration surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999;10:112–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ewing RH, Stamper RL. Needle revision with and without 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of failed filtering blebs. Am J Ophthalol. 1990;110:254–259.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Greenfield DS, Miller MP, Suner IJ, et al. Needle revision of failed filtering blebs using mitomycin-C. Ophthalmology. 1996;122:195–204.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mardelli PG, Lederer CM, Murrary PL, et al. Slit-lamp needle revision of filtering blebs using mitomycin C. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:1946–1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shetty RK, Wartluft L, Moster MR. Slit-lamp needle revision of failed filtering blebs using high-dose mitomycin C. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Feldman RM, Gross RL, Spaeth GL, et al. Risk factors for the development of Tenon’s capsule cysts after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:336–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scott DR, Quigley HA. Medical management of a high bleb phase after trabaculectomies. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:1169–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Azuara-Blanco A, Bond BJ, Wilson RP, et al. Encapsulated filtering blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28:805–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yarangümeli A, Köz OG, Kural G. Encapsulated blebs following primary standard trabeculectomy: course and treatment. J Glaucoma. 2004;13:251–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Katz LJ, Cantor LB, Spaeth GL. Complications of surgery in glaucoma. Early and late bacterial endophthalmitis following glaucoma filtering surgery. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:959–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Caronia RM, Liebmann JM, Friedman R, et al. Trabeculectomy at the inferior limbus. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:387–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Greenfield DS, Suner IJ, Miller MP, et al. Endophthalmitis after filtering surgery with mitomycin. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:943–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mandelbaum S, Forster RK, Gelender H, et al. Late onset endophthalmitis associated with filtering blebs. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:964–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    DeBry PW, Perkins TW, Heatley G, et al. Incidence of late-onset bleb-related complications following trabeculectomy with mitomycin. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Soltau JB, Rothman RF, Budenz DL, et al. Risk factors for glaucoma filtering bleb infections. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:338–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jampel HD, Quigley HA, Kerrigan-Baumrid LA, et al. The Glaucoma Surgical Outcomes Study Group. Risk factors for late-onset infection following glaucoma filtration surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1001–1008.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Song A, Scott IU, Flynn HW Jr, et al. Delayed-onset bleb-associated endophthalmitis: clinical features and visual acuity outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:985–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kangas TA, Greenfield DS, Flynn HW Jr, et al. Delayed-onset endophthalmitis associated with conjunctival filtering blebs. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:746–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Reynolds AC, Skuta GL, Monlux R, et al. Management of blebitis by members of the American Glaucoma Society: a survey. J Glaucoma. 2001;10:340–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wand M, Quintiliani R, Robinson A. Antibiotic prophylaxis in eyes with filtration blebs: survey of glaucoma specialists, microbiological study, and recommendations. J Glaucoma. 1995;4:103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Beck AD. Review of recent publications of the advanced glaucoma intervention study. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14:83-85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellows J, Lieberman H, Abrahamson I. Flattened anterior chamber. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;54:170-178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Borisuth NS, Phillips B, Krupin T. The risk profile of glaucoma filtration surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999;10:112-116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown RH, Lynch MG, Tearse JE, et al. Neodymium-YAG vitreous surgery for phakic and pseudophakic malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:1464-1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Burnstein A, WuDunn D, Ishii Y, et al. Autologous blood injection for the late-onset filtering bleb leak. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:36-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Byrnes GA, Leen MM, Wong TP, et al. Vitrectomy for ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:1308-1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandler PA, Grant WM. Mydriatic-cycloplegic treatment in malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;62:353-359.Google Scholar
  8. Chandler PA, Simmons RJ, Grant WM. Malignant glaucoma medical and surgical treatment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1968;66:495-502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandler PA. Malignant glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1951;34:993-1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Costa VP, Smith M, Spaeth, GL, et al. Loss of visual acuity after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:599-612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Edmunds B, Thompson, JR, Salmon JF, et al. The national survey of trabeculectomy III. Early and late complications. Eye. 2002;16:297-303Google Scholar
  12. Epstein DL. Pseudophakic malignant glaucoma - is it really pseudomalignant? Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103:231-233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Epstein DL, Steinert RF, Puliafito, CA. Neodymium-YAG laser therapy to the anterior hyaloids in aphakic malignant glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98:137-143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fontana H, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Lumba J, et al. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C: outcomes and risk factors for failures in phakic open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:930-936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerber SL, Cantor LB. Slit lamp reformation of the anterior chamber following trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg. 1990;21:404-406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harbour JW, Rubsamon PE, Palmberg P. Pars plana vitrectomy in the management of phakic and pseudophakic malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1073-1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jampel HD, Musch DC, Gillespie BW, et al. Perioperative complications of trabeculectomy in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:16-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim YY, Yung HR. The effect of flat anterior chamber on the success of trabeculectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1995;73:268-272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Monteiro de Barros DS, Navano JBV, Mantravadi AV, et al. The early flat anterior chamber after trabeculectomy. A randomized, prospective study of 3 methods of management. 2009;18:13-20.Google Scholar
  20. Osher RH, Cionni LB, Cohen JS. Reforming the flat anterior chamber with Healon. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1996;22:411-415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Parc, CE, Johnson DH, Oliver JE, et al. The long-term outcome of glaucoma filtration surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:27-35.Google Scholar
  22. Shaffer RN. The role of vitreous detachment in aphakic and malignant glaucoma. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1954;58:217-238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Simmons RJ, Kimbrough RL. Shell tamponade in filtering surgery for glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg. 1979;10(9):17-34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith MF, Magauran III RG, Betchkal JA, et al. Treatment of post-filtration bleb leaks with autologous blood. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;102:868-871.Google Scholar
  25. Spaeth GL. Glaucoma surgery. In: Spaeth GL, ed. Ophthalmic Surgery: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990.Google Scholar
  26. Stewart WC, Shields MB. Management of anterior chamber depth after trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106:41-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. The AGIS Investigators. The advanced glaucoma intervention study (AGIS) 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:429-440.Google Scholar
  28. Weiss H, Shin DH, Kollarits CR. Vitrectomy for ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1981;21:113-119.Google Scholar
  29. WuDunn D, Ryser D, Cantor LB. Surgical drainage of choroidal effusions following glaucoma surgery. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:103-108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zalta AH, Wieder RH. Closure of leaking filtering blebs with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991;175(3):170-173.Google Scholar


  1. Asrani SG, Wilensky JT. Management of bleb leaks after glaucoma filtering surgery. Use of autologous fibrin tissue glue as an alternative. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:294–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahar I, Weinberger D, Lusky M, et al. Fibrin glue as a suture substitute: histological evaluation of trabeculectomy in rabbit eyes. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:31–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Biedner B, Rosenthal G. Conjunctival closure in strabismus surgery: vicryl versus fibrin glue. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1996;27:967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen RA, McDonald MB. Fixation of conjunctival autografts with an organic tissue adhesive. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:1167–1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Grewing R, Mester U. Fibrin sealant in the management of complicated hypotony after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28:124–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Fibrin glue-assisted glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1486–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lagoutte FM, Gauthier L, Comte PR. A fibrin sealant for perforated and preperforated corneal ulcers. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73:757–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. O’Sullivan F, Dalton R, Rostron CK. Fibrin glue: an alternative method of wound closure in glaucoma surgery. J Glaucoma. 1996;5:367–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Seligsohn A, Moster MR, Steinmann W, Fontanarosa J. Use of Tisseel fibrin sealant to manage bleb leaks and hypotony: case series. J Glaucoma. 2004;13(3):227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Valimaki J. Fibrin glue for preventing immediate postoperative hypotony following glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84:372–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlene R. Moster
    • 1
  • Augusto Azuara-Blanco
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyThomas Jefferson University HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyAberdeen Royal Infirmary, The Eye Clinic, University of AberdeenForesterhillUK

Personalised recommendations