Advertisement

Neuroprotection of Retinal Ganglion Cells

  • Alvaro P. C. Lupinacci
  • Howard Barnebey
  • Peter A. Netland
Chapter

Abstract

Therapeutic efforts for treatment of glaucoma have focused on reduction of intraocular pressure as the main objective. In clinical practice, intraocular pressure (IOP) control has been expected to slow or arrest the glaucoma progression. However, clinicians have been confronted with significant glaucoma progression even when achieving control of intraocular pressure. In the Collaborative Normal-Tension Glaucoma Study, following medical or surgical treatment to achieve at least 30% reduction of intraocular pressure, 12% of patients experienced continued visual field loss secondary to optic nerve damage.

Keywords

Optic Nerve Ganglion Cell Intraocular Pressure Retinal Ganglion Cell Glaucoma Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson DR. Collaborative normal tension glaucoma study. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14(2):86–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weber AJ, Harman CD, Viswanathan S. Effects of optic nerve injury, glaucoma, and neuroprotection on the survival, structure, and function of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. J Physiol. 2008;586(Pt 18):4393–4400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wax MB, Tezel G. Neurobiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy: diverse cellular events in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. Mol Neurobiol. 2002;26(1):45–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McKinnon SJ. Glaucoma, apoptosis, and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1997;8(2):28–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lipton SA. Retinal ganglion cells, glaucoma and neuroprotection. Prog Brain Res. 2001;131:712–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levin LA. Neuroprotection and regeneration in glaucoma. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 2005;18(4):585-596, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levin LA. Mechanisms of optic neuropathy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1997;8(6):9–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farkas RH, Grosskreutz CL. Apoptosis, neuroprotection, and retinal ganglion cell death: an overview. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2001;41(1):111–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoles E, Schwartz M. Potential neuroprotective therapy for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998;42(4):367–372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whitcup SM. Clinical trials in neuroprotection. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:323–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weinreb RN. Glaucoma neuroprotection: What is it? Why is it needed? Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42(3):396–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wein FB, Levin LA. Current understanding of neuroprotection in glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13(2):61–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Osborne NN, Chidlow G, Nash MS, Wood JP. The potential of neuroprotection in glaucoma treatment. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999;10(2):82–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Osborne NN, Chidlow G, Layton CJ, Wood JP, Casson RJ, Melena J. Optic nerve and neuroprotection strategies. Eye. 2004;18(11):1075–1084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dreyer EB. The potential for neuroprotection in glaucoma. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 1997;10:365–376.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weinreb RN. Neuroprotection-possibilities in perspective. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;45(Suppl 3):S241-S242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osborne NN. Pathogenesis of ganglion “cell death” in glaucoma and neuroprotection: focus on ganglion cell axonal mitochondria. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:339–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nickells RW. Retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma: the how, the why, and the maybe. J Glaucoma. 1996;5(5):345–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalapesi FB, Coroneo MT, Hill MA. Human ganglion cells express the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor: relevance to neuroprotection. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(6):758–763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rosa RH Jr, Hein TW, Yuan Z, et al. Brimonidine evokes heterogeneous vasomotor response of retinal arterioles: diminished nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation when size goes small. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291(1):H231-H238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neufeld AH, Hernandez MR, Gonzalez M. Nitric oxide synthase in the human glaucomatous optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(4):497–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harris A, Ciulla TA, Kagemann L, Zarfati D, Martin B. Vasoprotection as neuroprotection for the optic nerve. Eye 2000;14(Pt 3B):473–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwartz M, London A. Glaucoma as a neuropathy amenable to neuroprotection and immune manipulation. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:375–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schwartz M. Harnessing the immune system for neuroprotection: therapeutic vaccines for acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2001;21(6):617–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schwartz M. Physiological approaches to neuroprotection. boosting of protective autoimmunity. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;45(Suppl 3):S256-S260; discussion S273-S276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bakalash S, Kipnis J, Yoles E, Schwartz M. Resistance of retinal ganglion cells to an increase in intraocular pressure is immune-dependent. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43(8):2648–2653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bakalash S, Kessler A, Mizrahi T, Nussenblatt R, Schwartz M. Antigenic specificity of immunoprotective therapeutic vaccination for glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44(8):3374–3381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Neufeld AH, Liu B. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy: when glia misbehave. Neuroscientist. 2003;9(6):485–495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Osborne NN, Ugarte M, Chao M, et al. Neuroprotection in relation to retinal ischemia and relevance to glaucoma. Surv Ophthalmol. 1999;43(Suppl 1):S102-S128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cordeiro MF, Erskine L. Back to basics - ephrins, axonal guidance, neuroprotection and glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91(9):1106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tezel G. TNF-alpha signaling in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:409–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lipton SA. Pathologically-activated therapeutics for neuroprotection: mechanism of NMDA receptor block by memantine and S-nitrosylation. Curr Drug Targets. 2007;8(5):621–632.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dreyer EB. A proposed role for excitotoxicity in glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 1998;7(1):62–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA. Alpha2 adrenergic modulation of NMDA receptor function as a major mechanism of RGC protection in experimental glaucoma and retinal excitotoxicity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(10):4515–4522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Osborne NN. Recent clinical findings with memantine should not mean that the idea of neuroprotection in glaucoma is abandoned. Acta Ophthalmol 2008.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Neufeld AH, Sawada A, Becker B. Inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase 2 by aminoguanidine provides neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(17):9944–9948.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schwartz M. Neuroprotection as a treatment for glaucoma: pharmacological and immunological approaches. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13(Suppl 3):S27-S31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kitaoka Y, Kumai T. Modulation of retinal dopaminergic cells by nitric oxide. A protective effect on NMDA-induced retinal injury. In Vivo. 2004;18(3):311–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wheeler L, WoldeMussie E, Lai R. Role of alpha-2 agonists in neuroprotection. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48(Suppl 1):S47-S51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wheeler LA, Woldemussie E. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in experimental models of glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2001;11(Suppl 2):S30-S35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chidlow G, Wood JP, Casson RJ. Pharmacological neuroprotection for glaucoma. Drugs. 2007;67(5):725–759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tsai JC, Song BJ, Wu L, Forbes M. Erythropoietin: a candidate neuroprotective agent in the treatment of glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2007;16(6):567–571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhong L, Bradley J, Schubert W, et al. Erythropoietin promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in DBA/2J glaucoma mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48(3):1212–1218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weishaupt JH, Rohde G, Polking E, Siren AL, Ehrenreich H, Bahr M. Effect of erythropoietin axotomy-induced apoptosis in rat retinal ganglion cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(5):1514–1522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kumar DM, Simpkins JW, Agarwal N. Estrogens and neuroprotection in retinal diseases. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1480–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhou X, Li F, Ge J, et al. Retinal ganglion cell protection by 17-beta-estradiol in a mouse model of inherited glaucoma. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67(5):603–616.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schori H, Kipnis J, Yoles E, et al. Vaccination for protection of retinal ganglion cells against death from glutamate cytotoxicity and ocular hypertension: implications for glaucoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(6):3398–3403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lagreze WA, Muller-Velten R, Feuerstein TJ. The neuroprotective properties of gabapentin-lactam. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;239(11):845–849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yu MS, Lai CS, Ho YS, et al. Characterization of the effects of anti-aging medicine Fructus lycii on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20(2):261–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chung HS, Harris A, Kristinsson JK, Ciulla TA, Kagemann C, Ritch R. Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1999;15(3):233–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhang B, Rusciano D, Osborne NN. Orally administered epigallocatechin gallate attenuates retinal neuronal death in vivo and light-induced apoptosis in vitro. Brain Res. 2008;1198:141–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bull ND, Johnson TV, Martin KR. Stem cells for neuroprotection in glaucoma. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:511–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schober MS, Chidlow G, Wood JP, Casson RJ. Bioenergetic-based neuroprotection and glaucoma. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2008;36(4):377–385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guo L, Cordeiro MF. Assessment of neuroprotection in the retina with DARC. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:437–450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvaro P. C. Lupinacci
    • 1
  • Howard Barnebey
    • 2
  • Peter A. Netland
    • 3
  1. 1.Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Specialty Eyecare CentreBellevueUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Virginia School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations