Advertisement

Photography of the Optic Nerve

  • Roy WhitakerJr.
  • Von Best Whitaker
Chapter

Abstract

Characteristic glaucomatous damage to the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer (NFL) are definitive structural features for the diagnosis of glaucoma. Clinical evaluation of the nerve may be difficult when the patient is blinking, moving, avoiding the examining light, and with ocular saccades.

Keywords

Optic Nerve Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Optic Nerve Head Stereo Image Fundus Camera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Nordenson JW. Augencamera zum stanionaren Ophthalmoskop Von Gulstrand. Der Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges. 1925;45:278.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hitchings RA, Varma R, Poinoosawmy D. Optic photographs. In: Varma R, Spaeth GL, Parker JW, eds. The Optic Nerve in Glaucoma, Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1993.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Evaluating the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma. I: Clinical examination and photographic methods. Semin Ophthalmol. 2000;15(4):194–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riedel H. Photography. In: Heilmann K, Richardson KT, eds. Glaucoma: Conceptions of a Disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1978:241–263.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Towsend KA, Wollstein G, Schuman JS. Imaging of the retinal nerve fibre layer for glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(2):139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martinello M, Favaro P, et al. 3D Retinal surface inference: stereo or monocular fundus camera? Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Cite Internationale, Lyon, france August 23-26, 2007.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenfield DS. Stereoscopic optic disc. In: Schulman JS, ed. Imaging in Glaucoma. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK; 1997:3–14.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sommer A, Pollack I, Maumenee AE. Optic disc parameters in onset of glaucomatous field loss. I. Methods and progressive changes in disc morphology. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97:1444–1448.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caprioli J, Prum B, Zeyen T. comparison of methods to evaluate the optic nerve head and nerve fiber layer for glaucomatous change. Am J ophthalmol. 1996;121:659–667.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’connor DJ, Zeyen T, Caprioli J. Comparisons of methods to detect glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1498–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen L. Ocular fundus photography. Am J Ophthalmol. 1964;57:13–28.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Donaldson DD. A new camera for stereoscopic funduus photography. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1964;6:6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krohn MA, Keltner JL, Johnson CA. Comparison of photographic techniques and films use in stereophotogrammetry of the optic disc. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;88:859–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boes Da, Spaeth GL, Mills RP, et al. Relative optic cup depth assessment using three stereo photograph viewing methods. J Glaucoma. 1996;5:9–14.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weinreb R, Nelson M, Goldbaum M, et al. Digital image analysis of optic disc topography. Proceedings of the XXVth international Congress of ophthalmology. Rome: Kugler & Ghedini; 1986:16–221.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenfield DS, Zacharia P, Schuman JS. Comparison of Nidek 3Dx and Donaldson simultaneous stereoscopic disc photography. Am J Ophthlamol. 1993;116:741–747.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Accurate image manipulation for desktop publishing. Silver Halide Resolution. Available at: http://www.aim-dtp.net/aim/technology/silver_halide/index.htm.
  18. 18.
    McKinnon SJ. The value of stereoscopic optic disc photography. J Glaucoma. 2005;3(6):31.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khouri AS, Szirth BC, Realini T, Fechtner RD. Digital images correlate well with film for simultaneous stereophotography of the optic nerve in glaucoma. Paper presented at: The ARVO Annual Meeting; May 5, 2005; Fort Lauderdale, FL.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu J, Ishikawa H, et al. Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs. Investigative ophthalmology and visual science June 2008;2512–2517.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lamourex EL, Lo K, et al. The agreement between the Heidelberg retina tomograph and a digital non-midget attic retinal camera in assessing area cup to disc ratio. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Correnti AJ, Wollstein G, Price LL, Schuman JS. Comparison of optic nerve head assessment with a digital stereoscopic camera (discam), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and stereophotography. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(8):1499–1505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heijl A, Bengtsson B. Diagnosis of early glaucoma with flicker comparisons of serial disc photographs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30:2376–2384.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parkin B, Shuttleworth G, Costen M, et al. A comparison of stereoscopic and monoscopic evaluation of optic disc topography using a digital optic disc stereo camera. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1347–1351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stamper RL, Lieberman MF, Drake M. Becker-Shaffer’s Diagnosis and Therapy of the Glaucomas. St. Louis: Mosby; 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy WhitakerJr.
    • 1
  • Von Best Whitaker
    • 2
  1. 1.Eye Consultants of GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  2. 2.North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, School of NursingGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations