Persons, groups, and organizations threaten to kill and intimidate individuals because of their national origins, cultural, ideological, religious, and political beliefs and traditions, ethnic/racial background, and sexual orientation. They frequently make death threats in order to keep their targets in subordinate roles and make them change their behaviors, such as moving out of town.
Laws that define bias-motivated behaviors as crimes.
Laws that provide criminal penalty enhancements for the commission of hate crimes.
Laws that create a civil cause of action for hate crimes.
Laws that require administrative agencies to collect data on hate crimes.
Laws that emphasize war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity. Prohibitions against these activities are limited to public officials (Wikipedia, 2007g).
Individuals have attempted to challenge the...