Ultrasound can effectively be used to evaluate many structures of the knee. The resolution of ultrasound is maximized when evaluating superficial structures. Therefore, evaluation of superficial structures such as the extensor mechanism of the knee, the medial collateral ligament, and joint recesses can be quite successful. Because resolution is generally decreased as the depth of the structure being evaluated increases, ultrasound is less effective for deep structures as well as intraarticular structures, such as cartilage or intrinsic knee ligaments.


Posterior Cruciate Ligament Patellar Tendon Medial Collateral Ligament Lateral Meniscus Lateral Collateral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Friedman L, Finlay K, Popovich T et al. Sonographic findings in patients with anterior knee pain. J Clin Ultrasound 2003;31(2):85–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azzoni R, Cabitza P. Is there a role for sonography in the diagnosis of tears of the knee menisci? J Clin Ultrasound 2002;30(8):472–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schweitzer ME, Tran D, Deely DM et al. Medial collateral ligament injuries: Evaluation of multiple signs, prevalence and location of associated bone bruises, and assessment with MR imaging. Radiology 1995;194(3):825–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Maeseneer M, Van Roy F, Lenchik L et al. Three layers of the medial capsular and supporting structures of the knee: MR imaging-anatomic correlation. Radiographics 2000;20(Spec No):S83–S89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sekiya JK, Jacobson JA, Wojtys EM. Sonographic imaging of the posterolateral structures of the knee: Findings in human cadavers. Arthroscopy 2002;18(8): 872–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang GS, Yu JS, Munshi M, et al. Avulsion fracture of the head of the fibula (the “arcuate” sign): MR imaging findings predictive of injuries to the posterolateral ligaments and posterior cruciate ligament. AJR 2003;180(2):381–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Munshi M, Pretterklieber ML, Kwak S et al. MR imaging, MR arthrography, and specimen correlation of the posterolateral corner of the knee: An anatomic study. AJR 2003;180(4):1095–1101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Starok M, Lenchik L, Trudell D et al. Normal patellar retinaculum: MR and sonographic imaging with cadaveric correlation. AJR 1997;168(6):1493–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bianchi S, Zwass A, Abdelwahab IF et al. Diagnosis of tears of the quadriceps tendon of the knee: Value of sonography. AJR 1994;162(5):1137–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonaldi VM, Chhem RK, Drolet R et al. Iliotibial band friction syndrome: Sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med 1998;17(4):257–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aisen AM, McCune WJ, MacGuire A et al. Sonographic evaluation of the cartilage of the knee. Radiology 1984;153(3):781–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roth C, Jacobson J, Jamadar D et al. Quadriceps fat pad signal intensity and enlargement on MRI: Prevalence and associated findings. AJR 2004;182(6): 1383–1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ward EE, Jacobson JA, Fessell DP et al. Sonographic detection of Baker’s cysts: Comparison with MR imaging. AJR 2001;176(2):373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rothstein CP, Laorr A, Helms CA et al. Semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament bursitis: MR imaging findings. AJR 1996;166(4):875–877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Maeseneer M, Shahabpour M, Van Roy F et al. MR imaging of the medial collateral ligament bursa: Findings in patients and anatomic data derived from cadavers. AJR 2001;177(4):911–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cho KH, Lee DC, Chhem RK et al. Normal and acutely torn posterior cruciate ligament of the knee at US evaluation: Preliminary experience. Radiology 2001;219(2):375–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ptasznik R, Feller J, Bartlett J et al. The value of sonography in the diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. AJR 1995;164(6):1461–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon A. Jacobson
    • 1
  1. 1.Director, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology,University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations