Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery: Evidence-Based Review of the Literature

  • Max C. Lee
  • Kyle Fox
  • Richard G. Fessler


The advances in minimally invasive spinal surgery (MISS) are unparalleled. These advances have occurred throughout the spinal axis from the occiput to the pelvis. With the progress in optics, instrumentation, and familiarity with MISS procedures, MISS can now be seen in all aspects of spine surgery.

Although MISS began as a way to assist decompressions within the lumbar spine, MISS has transitioned to address complex decompressions, tumor resections, fusions, and deformity. Decompressions include lumbar, thoracic, and cervical discs. Recurrent herniated discs, synovial cysts, and intradural and extradural tumors are within the scope of MISS. With percutaneous screws and expandable working channels, fixation is accomplished in multiple levels within the spinal axis. With thoracoscopic and transpsoas techniques, deformity can be approached within the coronal and axial plane. With bilateral extracavitary approaches, Smith-Peterson osteotomies and pedicle screw subtraction, osteotomies for deformity within the sagittal plane can also be accomplished.


Lumbar Fusion Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Synovial Cyst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

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