Exercise Testing Special Protocols

  • George D. Harris

In the United States, exercise treadmill testing remains the most commonly performed test to identify or confirm the presence of latent coronary artery disease. In contrast, most Europeans are more familiar with cycling and this testing device is more common there. However, standard protocols with specific speed and grade intervals are available for each type of testing.


Anaerobic Power Bruce Protocol Wingate Test Ramp Protocol Treadmill Protocol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stress Testing: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Ellestad MH. Oxford University Press. 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Whipp BJ. Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2005.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pollock ML, Bohannon RL, Cooper KH. A comparative analysis of four protocols for maximal treadmill stress testing. Am Heart J. 1976;92:39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balke B, Ware RW. An experimental study of fitness of physical fitness of Armed Forces personnel. US Armed Forces Med J. 1959;10:675–688.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Naughton J, Balke B, Nagle F. Refinements in method of evaluation and physical conditioning before and after myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1964;14:837–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ellestad MH, Allen W, Wan MCK, Kemp G. Maximal treadmill stress testing for cardiovascular evaluation. Circulation. 1969;39:517–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buchfuhrer MJ, Hansen JE, Robinson TE, Sue DY, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ. Optimizing the exercise protocol for cardiopulmonary assessment. J Appl Physiol. 1983;55:1558–1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Webster MWJ, Sharpe DN. Exercise testing in angina pectoris: The importance of protocol design in clinical trials. Am Heart J. 1989;117:505–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Will PM, Walter JD. Exercise testing: Improving performance with a ramped Bruce protocol. Am Heart J. 1999;138(6):1033–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Myers J, Buchanan N, Walsh D, Kraemer M, McAuley P, Hamilton-Wessler M. Comparison of the ramp versus standard exercise protocols. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;17:1334–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Revill SM, Beck KE, Morgan MDL. Comparison of the peak exercise response measured by the ramp and 1 min step cycle exercise protocols in patients with exertional dyspnea. Chest. 2002;121:1099–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pate RR, Blair SN, Durstine JL, Eddy DL, Hanson P, Painter P, Smith LK, Wolfe LA. Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 4th ed. RR Pate (ed). Philadelphia, PA, Lea & Febiger, 1991.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (Paperback) by Omri Inbar, Oded Bar-Or, and James S. Skinner. Human Kinetics Europe Ltd (Sep 1996).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beneke R, Pollman C, Bleif I, Leithauser RM Hutler M. How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Aug;87(4–5):388–392.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacobs PL, Mahoney ET, Johnson B. Reliability of arm Wingate Anaerobic Testing in persons with complete paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Summer;26(2):141–144.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • George D. Harris
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community and Family MedicineUniversity of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, Truman Medical Center—LakewoodKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations