A Nonprimate Model for the Fused Symphysis: In Vivo Studies in the Pig

  • Susan W. Herring
  • Katherine L. Rafferty
  • Zi Jun Liu
  • Zongyang Sun
Part of the Developments In Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Power Stroke Lingual Surface Lateral Pterygoid Muscle Labial Side Labial Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beecher, R. M. (1977). Function and fusion at the mandibular symphysis. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 47:325–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beecher, R. M. (1979). Functional significance of the mandibular symphysis. J. Morphol. 159:117–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bermejo, A., González, O., and González, J. M. (1993). The pig as an animal model for experimentation on the temporomandibular articular complex. Oral Surg. Oral Med., Oral Pathol. 75:18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, D. C., Lai, Y. L., Chi, L. Y., and Lee, S. Y. (2000). Contributing factors of mandibular deformation during mouth opening. J. Dentistry 28:583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ciochon, R. L., Nisbett, R. A., and Corruccini, R. S. (1997). Dietary consistency and craniofacial development related to masticatory function in minipigs. J. Craniofac. Gen. Dev. Biol. 17:96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. DuBrul, E. L., and Sicher, H. (1954). The Adaptive Chin. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  7. Ferrari, C. S., and Herring, S. W. (1995). Use of a bite-opening appliance in the miniature pig: modification of craniofacial growth. Acta Anat. 154:205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greaves, W. S. (1988). A functional consequence of an ossified mandibular symphysis. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 77:53–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Herring, S. W. (1976). The dynamics of mastication in pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 21:473–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Herring, S. W. (1998). How can animal models answer clinical questions? In Carels, C., and Willems, G. (eds.), The Future of Orthodontics. Leuven University Press, Leuven, Belgium, pp. 89–96.Google Scholar
  11. Herring, S. W., and Scapino, R. P. (1973). Physiology of feeding in miniature pigs. J. Morphol. 141:427–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herring, S. W., Rafferty, K. L., Liu, Z. J., and Marshall, C. D. (2001). Jaw muscles and the skull in mammals: the biomechanics of mastication. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 131:207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herring, S. W., Decker, J. D., Liu, Z. J., and Ma, T. (2002). The temporomandibular joint in miniature pigs: anatomy, cell replication, and relation to loading. Anat. Rec. 266:152–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hogue, A. S., and Ravosa, M. J. (2001). Transverse masticatory movements, occlusal orientation, and symphyseal fusion in selenodont artiodactyls. J. Morphol. 249:221–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hylander, W. L. (1984). Stress and strain in the mandibular symphysis of primates: a test of competing hypotheses. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 64:1–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hylander, W. L. (1985). Mandibular function and biomechanical stress and scaling. Am. Zool. 25:315–330.Google Scholar
  17. Hylander, W. L., and Johnson, K. R. (1994). Jaw muscle function and wishboning of the mandible during mastication in macaques and baboons. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 94:523–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lieberman, D. E., and Crompton, A. W. (2000). Why fuse the mandibular symphysis? A comparative analysis. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112:517–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pond, W. G., and Houpt, K. A. (1978). The Biology of the Pig. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  20. Rafferty, K. L., and Herring, S. W. (1999). Craniofacial sutures: morphology, growth and in vivo masticatory strains. J. Morphol. 242:167–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rafferty, K. L., Herring, S. W., and Artese, F. (2000). Three-dimensional loading and growth of the zygomatic arch. J. Exptl. Biol. 203:2093–3004.Google Scholar
  22. Rafferty, K. L., Herring, S. W., and Marshall, C. D. (2003). The biomechanics of the rostrum and the role of facial sutures. J. Morphol. 257:33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rafferty, K. L., Sun, Z., Egbert, M. A., Baird, E. E., and Herring, S. W. (2006). Mandibular mechanics following osteotomy and appliance placement. II. Bone strain on the body and condylar neck. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 64:620–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ravosa, M. J., and Hylander, W. L. (1994). Function and fusion of the mandibular symphysis in primates: stiffness or strength? In: Fleagle, J., and Kay, R. (eds.), Anthropoid Origins. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 447–468.Google Scholar
  25. Scapino, R. P. (1981). Morphological investigation into functions of the jaw symphysis in carnivorans. J. Morphol. 167:339–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ström, D., Holm, S., Clemensson, E., Haraldson, T., and Carlsson, G. E. (1986). Gross anatomy of the mandibular joint and masticatory muscles in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa). Arch. Oral Biol. 31:763–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun, Z., Lee, E., and Herring, S. W. (2004). Cranial sutures and bones: growth and fusion in relation to masticatory strain. Anat. Rec. 276A:150–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sun, Z., Rafferty, K. L., Egbert, M. A., and Herring, S. W. (2006). Mandibular mechanics following osteotomy and appliance placement. I. Postoperative mobility of the osteotomy site. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 64:610–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang, F. (2001). Biomechanics of the Mammalian Jaw. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  30. Zhang, F., Langenbach, G. E. J., Hannam, A. G., and Herring, S. W. (2001). Mass properties of the pig mandible. J. Dent. Res. 80:327–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan W. Herring
    • 1
  • Katherine L. Rafferty
  • Zi Jun Liu
  • Zongyang Sun
  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity of WashingtonSeattle

Personalised recommendations