Putting Shape to Work: Making Functional Interpretations of~Masticatory Apparatus Shapes in Primates

  • Christopher J. Vinyard
Part of the Developments In Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Mechanical Advantage Functional Interpretation Shape Ratio Positive Allometry Biological Anthropologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackermann, R.R. (2005). Ontogenetic integration of the hominoid face. J. Hum. Evol. 48:175–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht, G.H., Gelvin, B.R., and Hartman, S.E. (1993). Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91:441–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht, G.H., Gelvin, B.R., and Hartman, S.E. (1995). Ratio adjustments in morphometrics: a reply to Dr. Corruccini. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 96:193–197.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, M.R.L., and Kay, R.F. (1993). Tooth form and diet in Ateline and Alouattine primates: reflections on the comparative method. Am. J. Sci. 293-A:356–382.Google Scholar
  5. Anton, S.C. (1996). Cranial adaptation to a high attrition diet in Japanese macaques. Int. J. Primatol. 17:401–427.Google Scholar
  6. Atchley, W.R., Gaskins, C.T., and Anderson, D. (1976). Statistical properties of ratios. I. Empirical results. Syst. Zool. 25:137–148.Google Scholar
  7. Atchley, W.R., and Hall, B.K. (1991). A model for development and evolution of complex morphological structures. Biol. Rev. Camb. Phil. Soc. 66:101–158.Google Scholar
  8. Bastir, M., and Rosas, A. (2004). Facial heights: evolutionary relevance of postnatal ontogeny for facial orientation and skull morphology in humans and chimpanzees. J. Hum. Evol. 47:359–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bock, W.J. (1977). Adaptation and the comparative method. In: Hecht, M.K., Goody, P.C., and Hecht, B.M. (eds.), Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution, Volume 14. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 57–82.Google Scholar
  10. Bock, W.J. (1989). Principles of biological comparison. Acta Morphol. Neerl.-Scand. 27:17–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bock, W.J., and von Wahlert, G. (1965). Adaptation and the form-function complex. Evolution 19:269–299.Google Scholar
  12. Bookstein, F.L. (1989). “Size and shape”: a comment on semantics. Syst. Zool. 38:173–180.Google Scholar
  13. Bouvier, M. (1986a). A biomechanical analysis of mandibular scaling in Old World monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 69:473–482.Google Scholar
  14. Bouvier, M. (1986b). Biomechanical scaling of mandibular dimension in New World Monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 7:551–567.Google Scholar
  15. Brandon, R.N. (1990). Adaptation and Environment. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  16. Churchill, S.E. (1996). Particulate versus integrated evolution of the upper body in late pleistocene humans: a test of two models. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100:559–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole, T.M. (1992). Postnatal heterochrony of the masticatory apparatus in Cebus apella and Cebus albifrons. J. Hum. Evol. 23:253–282.Google Scholar
  18. Corruccini, R.S. (1987). Shape in morphometrics: comparative analyses. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 73:289–303.Google Scholar
  19. Corruccini, R.S. (1995). Of ratios and rationality. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 96:189–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Daegling, D.J. (1989). Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 80:91–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Daegling, D.J. (1992). Mandibular morphology and diet in the genus Cebus. Int. J. Primatol. 13:545–570.Google Scholar
  22. Daegling, D.J. (1993). The relationship of in vivo bone strain to mandibular corpus morphology in (Macaca fascicularis). J. Hum. Evol. 25:247–269.Google Scholar
  23. Daegling, D.J. (2001). Biomechanical scaling of the hominoid mandibular symphysis. J. Morphol. 250:12–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Daegling, D.J. (2007). Morphometric estimation of torsional stiffness and strength in primate mandibles. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 132:261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Daegling, D.J., and McGraw, W.S. (2001). Feeding, diet, and jaw form in West African Colobus and Procolobus. Int. J. Primatol. 22:1033–1055.Google Scholar
  26. Darroch, J.N., and Mosimann, J.E. (1985). Canonical and principal components of shape. Biometrika 72:241–252.Google Scholar
  27. Demes, B., Preuschoft, H., and Wolff, J.E.A. (1984). Stress-strength relationships in the mandibles of hominoids. In: Chivers, D.J., Wood, B.A., and Bilsborough, A. (eds.), Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 369–390.Google Scholar
  28. Dumont, E.R. (1997). Cranial shape in fruit, nectar, and exudate feeders: implications for interpreting the fossil record. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 102:187–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Falsetti, A.B., Jungers, W.L., and Cole, T.M. (1993). Morphometrics of the callitrichid forelimb: a case study in size and shape. Int. J. Primatol. 14:551–572.Google Scholar
  30. Fleagle, J.G. (1985). Size and adaptation in primates. In: Jungers, W.L. (ed.), Size and Scaling in Primate Biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  31. Gauld, S.C. (1996). Allometric patterns of cranial bone thickness in fossil hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100:411–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Godfrey, L.R., Samonds, K.E., Jungers, W.L., and Sutherland, M.R. (2001). Teeth, brains, and primate life histories. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 114:192–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould, S.J. (1966). Allometry and size in ontogeny and phylogeny. Biol. Rev. 41:587–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gould, S.J. (1975). Allometry in primates, with emphasis on scaling and the evolution of the brain. In: Szalay, F.S. (ed.), Approaches to Primate Paleobiology, Karger, Basel, pp. 244–292.Google Scholar
  35. Grine, F.E., Demes, B., Jungers, W.L., and Cole, T.M. (1993). Taxonomic affinity of the early Homo cranium from Swartkrans, South Africa. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 92:411–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamrick, M.W. (1996a). Functional morphology of the lemuriform wrist joints and the relationship between wrist morphology and positional behavior in arboreal primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99:319–344.Google Scholar
  37. Hamrick, M.W. (1996b). Locomotor adaptations reflected in the wrist joints of early Tertiary primates (Adapiformes). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100:585–604.Google Scholar
  38. Hamrick, M.W. (1998). Functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: evidence from New World anthropoids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:113–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamrick, M.W., Rosenman, B.A., and Brush, J.A. (1999). Phalangeal morphology of the Paromoyidae (?Primates, Plesiadapiformes): the evidence for gliding behavior reconsidered. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 109:397–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hills, M., and Woods, B.A., (1984). Regression lines, size and allometry. In: Chivers, D.J., Wood, B.A., and Bilsborough, A. (eds.), Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 557–567.Google Scholar
  41. Hylander, W.L. (1979). The functional significance of primate mandibular form. J. Morphol. 160:223–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hylander, W.L. (1985). Mandibular function and biomechanical stress and scaling. Am. Zool. 25:315–330.Google Scholar
  43. Hylander, W.L. (1988). Implications of in vivo experiments for interpreting the functional significance of “robust” australopithecine jaws. In: Grine, F.E. (ed.), Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines, Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 55–83.Google Scholar
  44. Jablonski, N.G. (1993). Evolution of the masticatory apparatus in Theropithecus. In: Jablonski, N.G., (ed.), Theropithecus: The Rise and Fall of a Primate Genus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 299–329.Google Scholar
  45. Jackson, D.A., Harvey, H.H., and Somers, K.M. (1990). Ratios in aquatic sciences: statistical shortcomings with mean depth and the morphoedaphic index. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:1788–1795.Google Scholar
  46. James, F.C., and McCulloch, C.E. (1990). Multivariate analysis in ecology and systematics: panacea or Pandora’s box? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:129–166.Google Scholar
  47. Jantz, R.L., and Jantz, L.M. (2000). Secular changes in craniofacial morphology. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:327–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jerison, H.J. (1973). Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Johnson, S.E., and Shapiro, L.J. (1998). Positional behavior and vertebral morphology in atelines and cebines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105:333–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jolicoeur, P. (1963). The multivariate generalization of the allometry equation. Biometrics 19:497–499.Google Scholar
  51. Jungers, W.L. (1985). Body size and scaling of limb proportions in primates. In: Jungers, W.L. (ed.), Size and Scaling in Primate Biology, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 345–382.Google Scholar
  52. Jungers, W.L. (1988). Relative joint size and hominoid locomotor adaptations with implications for the evolution of hominid bipedalism. J. Hum. Evol. 17:247–265.Google Scholar
  53. Jungers, W.L., Burr, D.B., and Cole, M.S. (1998). Body size and scaling of long bone geometry, bone strength, and positional behavior in cercopithecoid primates. In: Strasser, E., Fleagle, J., Rosenberger, A., and McHenry, H. (eds.), Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 309–330.Google Scholar
  54. Jungers, W.L., and Cole, M.S. (1992). Relative growth and shape of the locomotor skeleton in lesser apes. J. Hum. Evol. 23:93–105.Google Scholar
  55. Jungers, W.L., Falsetti, A.B., and Wall, C.E. (1995). Shape, relative size, and size-adjustments in morphometrics. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 38:137–162.Google Scholar
  56. Kay, R.F. (1975). The functional significance of primate molar teeth. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 43:195–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kay, R.F. (1978). Molar structure and diet in extant Cercopithecidae. In: Butler, P.M., and Joysey, K., (eds.), Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth, Academic Press, London, pp. 309–339.Google Scholar
  58. Kermack, K.A., and Haldane, J.B.S. (1950). Organic correlation and allometry. Biometrika 37:30–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kidd, R., and Oxnard, C. (2005). Little Foot and big thoughts – a re-evaluation of the Stw573 foot from Sterkfontein, South Africa. Homo 55:189–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lague, M.R. (2003). Patterns of joint size dimorphism in the elbow and knee of catarrhine primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 120:278–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lague, M.R., and Jungers, W.L. (1996). Morphometric variation in Plio-Pleistocene hominid distal humeri. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 101:401–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lauder, G.V. (1995). On the inference of function from structure. In: Thomason, J. (ed.), Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  63. Lemen, C.A. (1983). The effectiveness of methods of shape analysis. Field. Zool. 15:1–17.Google Scholar
  64. Leroi, A.M., Rose, M.R., and Lauder, G.V. (1994). What does the comparative method reveal about adaptation? Am. Nat. 143:381–403.Google Scholar
  65. Lucas, P.W. (2004). Dental Functional Morphology: How Teeth Work, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  66. Lycett, S.J., and Collard, M. (2005). Do homoiologies impede phylogenetic analyses of the fossil hominids? An assessment based on extant papionin craniodental morphology. J. Hum. Evol. 49:618–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin, R.D., and Barbour, A.D. (1989). Aspects of line-fitting in bivariate allometric analyses. Folia Primatol. 53:65–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin, R.D., and MacLarnon, A.M. (1988). Quantitative comparisons of the skull and teeth in guenons. In: Gautier-Hion, A., Bourliere, F., Gautier, J.P., and Kingdon, J., (eds.), A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 160–183.Google Scholar
  69. Masterson, T.J. (1997). Sexual dimorphism and interspecific cranial form in two capuchin species: Cebus albifrons and C. apella. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104:487–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McArdle, B.H. (1988). The structural relationship: regression in biology. Can. J. Zool. 66:2329–2339.Google Scholar
  71. McCollum, M. (1997). Palatal thickening and facial form in Paranthropus examination of alternative developmental models. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 103:375–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McMahon, T.A. (1973). Size and shape biology. Science 179:1201–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McMahon, T.A. (1975a). Allometry and biomechanics: limb bones in adult ungulates. Am. Nat. 109:547–563.Google Scholar
  74. McMahon, T.A. (1975b). Using body size to understand the structural design of animals: quadrupedal locomotion. J. Appl. Physiol. 39:619–627.Google Scholar
  75. Mosimann, J.E. (1970). Size allometry: size and shape variables with characterizations of the lognormal and generalized gamma distributions. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 65:930–945.Google Scholar
  76. Mosimann, J.E. (1975). Statistical problems of size and shape. I. Biological applications and basic theorems. In: Patil, G.P., Kotz, S., Ord, J.K., (eds.), Statistical Distributions in Scientific Work, Vol. 2: Model Building and Model Selection, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, pp. 187–217.Google Scholar
  77. Mosimann, J.E., and James, F.C. (1979). New statistical methods for allometry with application to Florida Red-winged blackbirds. Evolution. 33:444–459.Google Scholar
  78. Mosimann, J.E., and Malley, J.D. (1979). Size and shape variables. In: Orloci, L., Rao, C.R., and Stiteler, W.M., (eds.), Multivariate Methods in Ecological Work, International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland MD, pp. 175–189.Google Scholar
  79. O’Connor, C.F., Franciscus, R.G., and Holton, N.E. (2005). Bite force production capability and efficiency in Neandertals and modern humans. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 127:129–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Oxnard, C.E. (1978). One biologist’s view of morphometrics. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9:219–241.Google Scholar
  81. Packard, G.C., and Boardman, T.J. (1987). The misuse of ratios to scale physiological data that vary allometrically with body size. In: Feder, M.E., Bennett, A.F., Burggren, W.W., and Huey, R.B., (eds.), New Directions in Ecological Physiology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 216–236.Google Scholar
  82. Pan, R., Yanzhang, P., Zhizhang, Y., Hong, W., and Yu, F. (1995). Comparison of masticatory morphology between Rhinopithecus bieti and R. roxellana. Am. J. Primatol. 35:271–281.Google Scholar
  83. Ravosa, M.J. (1990). Functional assessment of subfamily variation in maxillomandibular morphology among Old World monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 82:199–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ravosa, M.J. (1991a). Ontogenetic perspective of mechanical and nonmechanical models of primate circumorbital morphology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 85:95–112.Google Scholar
  85. Ravosa, M.J. (1991b). Interspecific perspective on mechanical and nonmechanical models of primate circumorbital morphology. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 86:369–396.Google Scholar
  86. Ravosa, M.J. (1991c). Structural allometry of the prosimian mandibular corpus and symphysis. J. Hum. Evol. 20:3–20.Google Scholar
  87. Ravosa, M.J. (1996a). Jaw scaling and biomechanics in fossil taxa. J. Hum. Evol. 30:159–160.Google Scholar
  88. Ravosa, M.J. (1996b). Jaw morphology and function in living and fossil Old World monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 17:909–932.Google Scholar
  89. Ravosa, M.J. (1996c). Mandibular form and function in North American and European Adapidae and Omomyidae. J. Morphol. 229:171–190.Google Scholar
  90. Ravosa, M.J. (2000). Size and scaling in the mandible of living and extinct apes. Folia Primatol. 71:305–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ravosa, M.J., and Vinyard, C.J. (2002). On the interface between ontogeny and function. In: Plavcan, J.M., Kay, R.F., Jungers, W.L., and van Schaik, C.P., (eds.), Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 73–111.Google Scholar
  92. Ravosa, M.J., Vinyard, C.J., Gagnon, M., and Islam, S.A. (2000). Evolution of anthropoid jaw loading and kinematic patterns. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112:493–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rayner, J.M.V. (1985). Linear relations in biomechanics: the statistics of scaling functions. J. Zool. Lond. 206:415–439.Google Scholar
  94. Reist, J.D. (1985). An empirical evaluation of several univariate methods that adjust for size variation in morphometric data. Can. J. Zool. 63:1429–1439.Google Scholar
  95. Rice, W.R. (1989). Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43:223–225.Google Scholar
  96. Richmond, B.G., Fleagle, J.G., Kappelman, J., and Swisher, C.C. (1998). First hominoid from the Miocene of Ethiopia and the evolution of the catarrhine elbow. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105:257–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ricker, W.E. (1973). Linear regressions in fishery research. J. Fish Res. Board Can. 30:409–434.Google Scholar
  98. Riska, B. (1991). Regression models in evolutionary allometry. Am. Nat. 138:283–299.Google Scholar
  99. Rohlf, F.J. (1990). Morphometrics. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:299–316.Google Scholar
  100. Shapiro, L.J., Seiffert, C.V.M., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., Simons, E.L., and Randria, G.F.N. (2005). Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae in extinct Malagasy strepsirrhines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128:823–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shea, B.T. (1981). Relative growth of the limbs and trunk of the African apes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 56:179–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shea, B.T. (1983). Size and diet in the evolution of African ape craniodental form. Folia Primatol. 40:32–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Shea, B.T. (1984). An allometric perspective on the morphological and evolutionary relationships between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common (Pan troglodytes) chimpanzees. In: Susman, R.L. (ed.), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 89–130.Google Scholar
  104. Shea, B.T. (1985a). Bivariate and multivariate growth allometry: statistical and biological considerations. J. Zool. Lond. 206:367–390.Google Scholar
  105. Shea, B.T. (1985b). Ontogenetic allometry and scaling: a discussion based on the growth and form of the skull in African apes, In: Jungers, W.L., (ed.), Size and Scaling in Primate Biology, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 175–205.Google Scholar
  106. Shea, B.T. (1995). Ontogenetic scaling and size correction in the comparative study of primate adaptations. Anthropology 33:1–16.Google Scholar
  107. Shea, B.T., and Gomez, A.M. (1988). Tooth scaling and evolutionary dwarfism: an investigation of allometry in human pygmies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 77:117–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Smith, R.J. (1980). Rethinking allometry. J. Theor. Biol. 87:97–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, R.J. (1983). The mandibular corpus of female primates: taxonomic, dietary, and allometric correlates of interspecific variations in size and shape. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 61:315–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, R.J. (1984a). Comparative functional morphology of maximum mandibular opening (gape) in primates. In: Chivers, D.J., Wood, B.A., and Bilsborough, A., (eds.), Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates, Plenum, New York, pp. 231–255.Google Scholar
  111. Smith, R.J. (1984b). Determination of relative size: the “criterion of subtraction” problem in allometry. J. Theor. Biol. 108:131–142.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, R.J. (1993). Categories of allometry: body size versus biomechanics. J. Hum. Evol. 24:173–182.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, R.J. (1994). Regression models for prediction equations. J. Hum. Evol. 26:239–244.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, R.J. (2005). Relative size versus controlling for size. Curr. Anthropol. 46:249–273.Google Scholar
  115. Smith, R.J., German, R.Z., and Jungers, W.L. (1986). Variability of biological similarity criteria$. J.$ Theor. Biol. 118:287–293.Google Scholar
  116. Smith, R.J., Petersen, C.E., and Gipe, D.P. (1983). Size and shape of the mandibular condyle in primates. J. Morphol. 177:59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Spencer, M.A. (1999). Constraints on masticatory system evolution in anthropoid primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 108:483–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sprent, P. (1972). The mathematics of size and shape. Biometrics 28:23–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Takahashi, L.K., and Pan, R. (1994). Mandibular morphometrics among macaques: the case of Macaca thibetana. Int. J. Primatol. 15:596–621.Google Scholar
  120. Taylor, A.B. (2002). Masticatory form and function in African apes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 117:133–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Taylor, A.B. (2005). A comparative analysis of temporomandibular joint morphology in the African apes. J. Hum. Evol. 48:555–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Viguier, B. (2004). Functional adaptations in the craniofacial morphology of Malagasy primates: shape variations associated with gummivory in the family Cheirogaleidae. Ann. Anat. 186:495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Vinyard, C.J. (1999), Temporomandibular Joint Morphology and Function in Strepsirhine and Eocene Primates. Ph.D. Thesis. Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  124. Vinyard, C.J. (2003). Functional interpretations of jaw shapes: beware of morphometricians bearing geometric means. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 36:216.Google Scholar
  125. Vinyard, C.J., and Hanna, J. (2005). Molar scaling in strepsirrhine primates. J. Hum. Evol. 49:241–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Vinyard, C.J., and Ravosa, M.J. (1998). Ontogeny, function, and scaling of the mandibular symphysis in papionin primates. J. Morphol. 235:157–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Vinyard, C.J., and Smith, F.H. (2001). Morphometric testing of structural hypotheses of the supraorbital region in modern humans. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 83:23–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Vinyard, C.J., Wall, C.E., Williams, S.H., and Hylander, W.L. (2003). Comparative functional analysis of skull morphology of tree-gouging primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 120:153–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Weil, W.B. (1962). Adjustment for size – a possible misuse of ratios. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 11:249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Williams, S.H., Wall, C.E., Vinyard, C.J., and Hylander, W.L. (2002). A biomechanical analysis of skull form in gum-harvesting galagids. Folia Primatol. 73:197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wright, S. (1932). General, group and special size factors. Genetics 17:603–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wright, S. (1968). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations 1. Genetics and Biometric Foundations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J. Vinyard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyNEOUCOMRootstown

Personalised recommendations