Adaptive Plasticity in the Mammalian Masticatory Complex: You AreWhat, and How, You Eat

  • Matthew J. Ravosa
  • Elisabeth K. Lopez
  • Rachel A. Menegaz
  • Stuart R. Stock
  • M. Sharon Stack
  • Mark W. Hamrick
Part of the Developments In Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Articular Cartilage Discriminant Function Analysis Physical Anthropology Proteoglycan Content Adaptive Plasticity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agarwal S, Long P, Gassner R, Piesco NP & Buckley MJ (2001) Cyclic tensile strain suppresses catabolic effects of interleukin-1β in fibrochondrocytes from the temporomandibular joint. Arthritis Rheumatism 44:608–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal AA (2001) Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species. Science 294:321–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bae YC, Park KP, Park MJ & Ihn HJ (1998) Development of vimentin filaments in the cells of the articular disc of the rat squamosomandibular joint with age. Archives Oral Biology 43:579–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bayliss MT, Venn M, Maroudas A & Ali SY (1983) Structure of proteoglycans from different layers of human articular cartilage. Biochem J 209:387–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beecher RM (1977) Function and fusion at the mandibular symphysis. American J Physical Anthropology 47:325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beecher RM (1979) Functional significance of the mandibular symphysis. J Morphology 159:117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beecher RM (1983) Evolution of the mandibular symphysis in Notharctinae (Adapidae, Primates). International J Primatology 4:99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beecher RM & Corruccini RS (1981) Effects of dietary consistency on craniofacial and occlusal development in the rat. Angle Orthodontist 51:61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beecher RM, Corruccini RS & Freeman M (1983) Craniofacial correlates of dietary consistency in a nonhuman primate. J Craniofacial Genetics Developmental Biology 3:193–202.Google Scholar
  10. Benjamin M & Ralphs JR (1998) Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments – An adaptation to compressive load. J Anatomy 193:481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biewener AA (1993) Safety factors in bone strength. Calcified Tissue International 53:568–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biewener AA & Bertram JEA (1993) Skeletal strain patterns in relation to exercise training during growth. J Experimental Biology 185:51–69.Google Scholar
  13. Biewener AA, Swartz SM & Bertram JEA (1986) Bone modeling during growth: Dynamic strain equilibrium in the chick tibiotarsus. Calcified Tissue International 39:390–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biknevicius AR & Leigh SR (1997) Patterns of growth of the mandibular corpus in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and cougars (Puma concolor). Zoological J Linnean Society 120:139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biknevicius AR & Ruff CB (1992) The structure of the mandibular corpus and its relationship to feeding behaviours in extant carnivorans. J Zoology, London 228:479–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biknevicius AR & Van Valkenburgh B (1996) Design for killing: Craniodental adaptations of predators. Gittleman JL (Ed): Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Volume 2. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp 393–428.Google Scholar
  17. Block MS, Unhold G & Bouvier M (1988) The effect of diet texture on healing following temporomandibular joint discectomy in rabbits. J Oral Maxillofacial Surgery 46:580–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bock WJ & von Walhert G (1965) Adaptation and the form-function complex. Evolution 19:269–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouvier M (1986) A biomechanical analysis of mandibular scaling in Old World monkeys. American J Physical Anthropology 69:473–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouvier M (1987) Variation in alkaline-phosphatase activity with changing load on the mandibular condylar cartilage in the rat. Archives Oral Biology 32:671–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouvier M (1988) Effects of age on the ability of the rat temporomandibular joint to respond to changing functional demands. J Dental Research 67:1206–1212.Google Scholar
  22. Bouvier M & Hylander WL (1981) Effect of bone strain on cortical bone structure in macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Morphology 167:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bouvier M & Hylander WL (1982) The effect of dietary consistency on morphology of the mandibular condylar cartilage in young macaques (Macaca mulatta). AD Dixon & BG Sarnat (Eds): Factors and Mechanisms Influencing Bone Growth. New York: AR Liss, pp 569–579.Google Scholar
  24. Bouvier M & Hylander WL (1984) The effect of dietary consistency on gross and histologic morphology in the craniofacial region of young rats. American J Anatomy 170:117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bouvier M & Hylander WL (1996a) The mechanical or metabolic function of secondary osteonal bone in the monkey Macaca fascicularis. Archives Oral Biology 41:941–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bouvier M & Hylander WL (1996b) Strain gradients, age, and levels of modeling and remodeling in the facial bones of Macaca fascicularis. Z Davidovitch & LA Norton (Eds): The Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement and Craniofacial Adaptation. Boston: Harvard Society for the Advancement of Orthodontics, pp 407–412.Google Scholar
  27. Bouvier M & Zimny ML (1987) Effects of mechanical loads on surface morphology of the condylar cartilage of the mandible of rats. Acta Anatomica 129:293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Byron CD, Borke J, Yu J, Pashley D, Wingard CJ & Hamrick M (2004) Effects of increased muscle mass and mouse sagittal suture morphology and mechanics. Anatomical Record 279A:676–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Byron CD, Hamrick MW & Wingard CJ (2006) Alterations of temporalis muscle contractile force and histological content from the myostatin and Mdx deficient mouse. Archives Oral Biology 51:396–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carrier DR (1996) Ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. Physiological Zoology 69:467–488.Google Scholar
  31. Carvalho RS, Yen EH & Suga DM (1995) Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the rat articular disc in response to mechanical stress. American J Orthodontics Dentofacial Orthopaedics 107:401–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole TM (1992) Postnatal heterochrony of the masticatory apparatus in Cebus apella and Cebus albifrons. J Human Evolution 23:253–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Copray JCVM, Jansen HWB & Duterloo HS (1985) Effects of compressive forces on proliferation and matrix synthesis of mandibular condylar cartilage of the rat in vitro. Archives Oral Biology 30:299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Currey JD (2002) Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Daegling DJ (1989) Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus. American J Physical Anthropology 80:91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Daegling DJ (1992) Mandibular morphology and diet in the genus Cebus. Int J Primatology 13:545–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Darvell BW, Lee PKD, Yuen TDB & Lucas PW (1996) A portable fracture toughness tester for biological materials. Meas Sci Technol 7:954–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dessem D (1989) Interactions between jaw-muscle recruitment and jaw-joint forces in Canis familiaris. J Anatomy 164:101–121.Google Scholar
  39. Ferguson VL, Ayers RA, Bateman TA & Simske SJ (2003) Bone development and age-related bone loss in male C57BL/6J mice. Bone 33:387–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman PW (1979) Specialized insectivory: Beetle-eating and moth-eating molossid bats. J Mammalogy 60:467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeman PW (1981) Correspondence of food habits and morphology in insectivorous bats. J Mammalogy 62:166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freeman PW (1988) Frugivorous and animalivorous bats (Microchiroptera): Dental and cranial adaptations. Biological J Linnean Society 33:249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fujimura K, Kobayashi S, Suzuki T & Segami N (2005) Histologic evaluation of temporomandibular arthritis induced by mild mechanical loading in rabbits. J Oral Pathol Med 34:157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gans C, Gorniak GC & Morgan WK (1990) Bite-to-bite variation of muscular activity in cats. J Experimental} Biology 151:1–19.Google Scholar
  45. Gerber H-P, Vu TH, Ryan AM, Kowalski J, Werb Z & Ferrara N (1999) VEGF couples hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification and angiogenesis during endochondral bone formation. Nature Medicine 5:623–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldring MB (2004a) Human chondrocyte cultures as models of cartilage-specific gene regulation. J Picot (Ed): Methods in Molecular Medicine. Human Cell Culture Protocols, 2$nd$ Ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, pp 69–96.Google Scholar
  47. Goldring MB (2004b) Immortalization of human articular chondrocytes for generation of stable, differentiated cell lines. M Sabatini, P Pastoureau & F de Ceuninck (Eds): Methods in Molecular Medicine. Cartilage and Osteoarthritis, Volume 1: Cellular and Molecular Tools. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, pp 23–36.Google Scholar
  48. Gotthard K & Nylin S (1995) Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: A selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history. Oikos 74:3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grant BR & Grant PR (1989) Evolutionary Dynamics of a Natural Population. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Grieser B (1992) Infant development and parental care in two species of sifakas. Primates 33:305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grodzinsky AJ, Levenston ME, Jin M & Frank EH (2000) Cartilage tissue remodeling in response to mechanical forces. Annual Review Biomedical Engineering 2:691–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Guerne PA, Sublet A & Lotz M (1994) Growth factor responsiveness of human articular chondrocytes distinct profiles in primary chondrocytes, subcultured chondrocytes, and fibroblasts. J Cell Physiology 158:476–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guerne PA, Blanco F, Kaelin A, Desgeorges A & Lotz M (1995) Growth factor responsiveness of human articular chondrocytes in aging and development. Arthritis Rheumatism 38:960–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hamrick MW (1999) A chondral modeling theory revisited. J Theoretical Biology 201:201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamrick MW (2003) Increased bone mineral density in the femora of GDF8 knockout mice. Anatomical Record 272A:388–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hamrick MW, Pennington C & Byron C (2003) Bone modeling and disc degeneration in the lumbar spine of mice lacking GDF8 (myostatin). J Orthopaedic Research 21:1025–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haskin CL, Milam SB & Cameron IL (1995) Pathogenesis of degenerative joint disease in the human temporomandibular joint. Critical Reviews Oral Biology Medicine 6:248–277.Google Scholar
  58. Herring SW, Anapol FC & Wineski LE (1991) Motor-unit territories in the masseter muscle of infant pigs. Archives Oral Biology 36:867–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herring SW & Scapino RP (1973) Physiology of feeding in miniature pigs. J Morphology 141:427–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Herring SW & Wineski LE (1986) Development of the masseter muscle and oral behavior in the pig. J Experimental Zoology 237:191–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hiiemäe KM & Ardran GM (1968) A cinefluorographic study of mandibular movement during feeding in the rat (Rattus norvegicus). J Zoology (London) 154:139–154.Google Scholar
  62. Hirschfeld Z, Michaeli Y & Weinreb MM (1977) Symphysis menti of the rabbit: Anatomy, histology, and postnatal development. J Dental Research 56:850–857.Google Scholar
  63. Hogue AS (2004) On the Relation between Craniodental Form and Diet in Mammals: Marsupials as a Natural Experiment. PhD Thesis. Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  64. Hogue AS & Ravosa MJ (2001) Transverse masticatory movements, occlusal orientation and symphyseal fusion in selenodont artiodactyls. J Morphology 249:221–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Holden C & Vogel G (2002) Plasticity: Time for a reappraisal? Science 296:2126–2129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Holmvall K, Camper L, Johansson S, Kimura JH & Lundgren-Akerlund E (1995) Chondrocyte and chondrosarcoma cell integrins with affinity for collagen type II and their response to mechanical stress. Experimental Cell Research 221:496–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Honda K, Ohno S, Taniomoto K, Ijuin C, Tanaka N, Doi T, Kato Y & Tanne K (2000) The effects of high magnitude cyclic tensile load on cartilage matrix metabolism in cultured chondrocytes. European J Cell Biology 79:601–609.Google Scholar
  68. Huang Q, Opstelten D, Samman N & Tideman H (2002) Experimentally induced unilateral tooth loss: Histochemical studies of the temporomandibular joint. J Dental Research 81: 209–213.Google Scholar
  69. Huang Q, Opstelten D, Samman N & Tideman H (2003) Experimentally induced unilateral tooth loss: Expression of type II collagen in temporomandibular joint cartilage. J Oral Maxillof. Surg. 61:1054–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang X, Zhang G & Herring SW (1994) Age changes in mastication in the pig. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology 107A:647–654.Google Scholar
  71. Hylander WL (1979a) Mandibular function in Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fascicularis: An in vivo approach to stress analysis of the mandible. J Morphology 159:253–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hylander WL (1979b) The functional significance of primate mandibular form. J Morphology 160:223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hylander WL (1979c) An experimental analysis of temporomandibular joint reaction forces in macaques. American J Physical Anthropology 51:433–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hylander WL (1984) Stress and strain in the mandibular symphysis of primates: A test of competing hypotheses. American J Physical Anthropology 64:1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hylander WL (1985) Mandibular function and biomechanical stress and scaling. American Zoologist 25:315–330.Google Scholar
  76. Hylander WL (1992) Functional anatomy. BG Sarnat & DM Laskin (Eds): The Temporomandibular Joint. A Biological Basis for Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp 60–92.Google Scholar
  77. Hylander WL, Johnson KR & Crompton AW (1992) Muscle force recruitment and biomechanical modeling: An analysis of masseter muscle function during mastication in Macaca fascicularis. American J Physical Anthropology 88:365–387.Google Scholar
  78. Hylander WL, Ravosa MJ, Ross CF & Johnson KR (1998) Mandibular corpus strain in primates: Further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force. American J Physical Anthropology 107:257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hylander WL, Ravosa MJ, Ross CF, Wall CE & Johnson KR (2000) Symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force: An EMG study. American J Physical Anthropology 112:469–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hylander WL, Wall CE, Vinyard CJ, Ross CF, Ravosa MJ, Williams SH & Johnson KR (2005) Temporalis function in anthropoids and strepsirrhines: An EMG Study. American J Physical Anthropology 128:35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Iinuma M, Yoshida S & Funakoshi M (1991) Development of masticatory muscles and oral behavior from suckling to chewing in dogs. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology 100A:789–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ishibashi H, Takenoshita Y, Ishibashi K & Oka M (1996) Expression of extracellular matrix in human mandibular condyle. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology Endodontics 81:402–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ji S, Losinski R, Cornelius S, Frank G, Willis G, Gerrard D, Depreux F & Spurlock M (1998) Myostatin expression in porcine tissues: Tissue specificity and developmental and postnatal regulation. American J Physiology 275:R1265–1273.Google Scholar
  84. Kamelchuk LS & Major PW (1995) Degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint. J Orofacial Pain 9:168–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kiernan JA (1999) Histological and Histochemical Methods. 3$\mathrm{rd}$ Edition. Boston: Butterworh-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  86. Kiliardis S, Engström C & Thilander B (1985) The relationship between masticatory function and craniofacial morphology. I. A cephalometric longitudinal analysis in the growing rat fed a soft diet. European J Orthodontics 7:273–283.Google Scholar
  87. Kim SG, Park JC, Kang DW, Kim BO, Yoon JH, Cho SI, Choe HC & Bae CS (2003) Correlation of immunohistochemical characteristics of the craniomandibular joint with the degree of mandibular lengthening in rabbits. J Oral Maxillofacial Surgery 61:1189–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kiyoshima T, Kido MA, Nishimura Y, Himeno M, Tsukuba T, Tashiro H & Yamamoto K (1994) Immunocytochemical localization of cathepsin L in the synovial lining cells of the rat temporomandibular joint. Archives Oral Biology 39:1049–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kiyoshima T, Tsukaba T, Kido MA, Tashiro H, Yamamoto K & Tanaka T (1993) Immunocytochemical localization of cathepsins B and D in the synovial lining cells of the rat temporomandibular joint. Archives Oral Biology 38:357–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kobayashi M, Masuda Y, Fujimoto Y, Matsuya T, Yamamura K, Yamada Y, Maeda N & Morimoto T (2002) Electrophysiological analysis of rhythmic jaw movements in the freely moving mouse. Physiology Behavior 75:377–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Langenbach GE, Brugman P & Weijs WA (1992) Preweaning feeding mechanisms in the rabbit. J Developmental Physiology 18:253–261.Google Scholar
  92. Langenbach GEJ & van Eijden TMGJ (2001) Mammalian feeding motor patterns. American Zoologist 41:1338–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Langenbach GEJ, Weijs WA, Brugman P & van Eijden TMGJ (2001) A longitudinal electromyographic study of the postnatal maturation of mastication in the rabbit. Archives Oral Biology 46:811–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Langenbach GE, Weijs WA & Koolstra JH (1991) Biomechanical changes in the rabbit masticatory system during postnatal development. Anatomical Record 230:406–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lanyon LE & Rubin CT (1985) Functional adaptation in skeletal structures. M Hildebrand, DM Bramble, KF Liem & DB Wake (Eds): Functional Vertebrate Morphology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp 1–25.Google Scholar
  96. Lauder GV (1995) On the inference of function from structure. JJ Thomason (Ed): Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 1–18.Google Scholar
  97. Lee HS, Millward-Sadler SJ, Wright MO, Nuki G & Salter DM (2000) Integrin and mechanosensitive ion channel-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins and $\UPbeta $-catenin in human articular chondrocytes after mechanical stimulation. J Bone Mineral Research 15:1501–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lemare F, Steimberg N, Le Griel C, Demignot S & Adolphe M (1998) Dedifferentiated chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads: Restoration of the differentiated phenotype and of the metabolic responses to interleukin-1β. J Cellular Physiology 176:303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lieberman DE & Crompton AW (2000) Why fuse the mandibular symphysis? A comparative analysis. American J Physical Anthropology 112:517–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Losos JB (1990) Ecomorphology, performance capability, and scaling of West Indian Anolis lizards: An evolutionary analysis. Ecological Monographs 60:369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lucas PW (1994) Categorization of food items relevant to oral processing. DJ Chivers & P Langer (Eds): The Digestive System in Mammals: Food, Form and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 197–218.Google Scholar
  102. Lucas PW, Beta T, Darvell BW, Dominy NJ, Essackjee HC, Lee PKD, Osorio D, Ramsden L, Yamashita N & Yuen TDB (2001) Field kit to characterize physical, chemical and spatial aspect of potential primate foods. Folia Primatologica 72:11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Luschei ES & Goodwin GM (1974) Patterns of mandibular movement and jaw muscle activity during mastication in monkeys. J Neurophysiology 37:954–966.Google Scholar
  104. Mankin HJ, Dorfman H, Lippiello L & Zarins A (1971) Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data. J Bone Joint Surgery 53:523–537.Google Scholar
  105. Mao JJ, Rahemtulla F & Scott PG (1998) Proteoglycan expression in the rat temporomandibular joint in response to unilateral bite raise. J Dental Research 77:1520–1528}.Google Scholar
  106. Marchetti C, Cornaglia I, Casasco A, Bernasconi G, Baciliero U & Stedler-Stevenson WG (1999) Immunolocalization of gelatinase-A (matrix metalloproteinase-2) in damaged human temporomandibular joint discs. Archives Oral Biology 44:297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McPherron AC, Lawler AM & Lee S-J (1997) Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-{\ss} superfamily member. Nature 387:83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McPherron AC & Lee S-J (2002) Suppression of body fat accumulation in myostatin-deficient mice. J Clinical Investigation 109:595–601.Google Scholar
  109. Mizoguchi I, Takahashi I, Nakamura M, Sasano Y, Sato S, Kagayama M & Mitani H (1996) An immunohistochemical study of regional differences in the distribution of type I and type II collagens in rat mandibular condylar cartilage. Archives Oral Biology 41:863–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Morenko BJ, Bove SE, Chen L, Guzman RE, Juneau P, Bocan TMA, Peter GK, Arora R & Kilgore KS (2004) In vivo micro-computed tomography of subchondral bone in the rat after intra-articular administration of monosodium iodoacetate. Contemporary Topics Lab Animal Science 43:39–43.Google Scholar
  111. Mow VC, Fithian DC & Keely MA (1990) Fundamentals of articular cartilage and meniscus biomechanics. JW Ewing (Ed): Articular Cartilage and Knee Joint Function. New York: Raven Press, pp 1–18.Google Scholar
  112. Nakano T & Scott PG (1989) A quantitative chemical study of glycosaminoglycans in the articular disc of bovine temporomandibular joint. Archives Oral Biology 34:749–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Newton CD & Nunamaker DM (1985) Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics. JB Lippincott Co.Google Scholar
  114. Nicholson EK, Stock SR, Hamrick MW & Ravosa MJ (2006) Biomineralization and adaptive plasticity of the temporomandibular joint in myostatin knockout mice. Archives Oral Biology 51:37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nuzzo S, Lafage-Proust MH, Martin-Badosa E, Boivin G, Thomas T, Alexandre C & Peyrin F (2002) Synchrotron radiation microtomography allows analysis of three-dimensional microarchitecture and degree of mineralization of human iliac crest biopsy specimens: Effect of etidronate treatment. J Bone Mineral Research 17:1372–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ostergaard K, Andersen CB, Petersen J, Bendtzen K & Salter DM (1999) Validity of histopathological grading of articular cartilage from osteoarthritic knee joints. Annals Rheum Dis 58:208–213.Google Scholar
  117. Patel V, Issever AS, Burghardt A, Laib A, Ries M & Majumdar S (2003) MicroCT evaluation of normal and osteoarthritic bone structure in human knee specimens. J Orthopaedic Research 21:6–13.Google Scholar
  118. Pirttiniemi P, Kantomaa T, Salo L & Tuominen M (1996) Effect of reduced articular function on deposition of type I and type II collagens in the mandibular condylar cartilage of the rat. Archives Oral Biology 41:127–131.Google Scholar
  119. Puzas JE, Landeau JM, Tallents R, Albright J, Schwarz EM & Landesberg R (2001) Degradative pathways in tissues of the temporomandibular joint. Use of in vitro and in vivo models to characterize matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine activity. Cells Tissues Organs 169:248–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ravosa MJ (1991a) The ontogeny of cranial sexual dimorphism in two Old World monkeys: Macaca fascicularis (Cercopithecinae) and Nasalis larvatus (Colobinae). International J Primatology 12:403–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ravosa MJ (1991b) Structural allometry of the mandibular corpus and symphysis in prosimian primates. J Human Evolution 20:3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ravosa MJ (1992) Allometry and heterochrony in extant and extinct Malagasy primates. J Human Evolution 23:197–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ravosa MJ (1996) Mandibular form and function in North American and European Adapidae and Omomyidae. J Morphology 229:171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ravosa MJ (1998) Cranial allometry and geographic variation in slow lorises (Nycticebus). American J Primatology 45:225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ravosa MJ (1999) Anthropoid origins and the modern symphysis. Folia Primatologica 70:65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ravosa MJ (2000) Size and scaling in the mandible of living and extinct apes. Folia Primatologica 71:305–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ravosa MJ (2007) Cranial ontogeny, diet and ecogeographic variation in African lorises. American J Primatology 68:1–15.Google Scholar
  128. Ravosa MJ & Hogue AS (2004) Function and fusion of the mandibular symphysis in mammals: A comparative and experimental perspective. CF Ross & RF Kay (Eds): Anthropoid Evolution. New Visions. New York: Springer/Kluwer Publishers, pp 413–462.Google Scholar
  129. Ravosa MJ & Hylander WL (1994) Function and fusion of the mandibular symphysis in primates: Stiffness or strength? JG Fleagle & RF Kay (Eds): Anthropoid Origins. New York: Plenum Press, pp 447–468.Google Scholar
  130. Ravosa MJ, Johnson KR & Hylander WL (2000) Strain in the galago facial skull. J Morphology 245:51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ravosa MJ, Klopp EB, Pinchoff J, Stock SR & Hamrick MW (2007b) Plasticity of mandibular biomineralization in myostatin-deficient mice. J Morphology 268:275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ravosa MJ, Kunwar R., Stock SR & Stack MS (2007a) Pushing the limit: Masticatory stress and adaptive plasticity in mammalian craniomandibular joints. J Experimental Biology 210:628–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ravosa MJ & Simons EL (1994) Mandibular growth and function in Archaeolemur. American J Physical Anthropology 95:63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ravosa MJ, Stock SR, Simons EL & Kunwar R (2007c) MicroCT analysis of symphyseal ontogeny in Archaeolemur. International J Primatology 28:1385–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rigler L & Mlinsek B (1968) Die Symphyse der Mandibula beim Rinde. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis ihrer Struktur und Funktion. Anatomischer Anzeiger 122:293–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Scapino RP (1981) Morphological investigation into functions of the jaw symphysis in carnivorans. J Morphology 167:339–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Shuto T, Sarkar G, Bronk J, Matsui N & Bolander M (1997) Osteoblasts express types I and II activin receptors during early intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. J Bone Mineral Research 12:403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sorensen MF, Rogers JP & Baskett TS (1968) Reproduction and development in confined swamp rabbits. J Wildlife Management 32:520–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Spencer LM (1995) Morphological correlates of dietary resource partitioning in the African Bovidae. J Mammalogy 76:448–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Srinivas R, Sorsa T, Tjaderhane L, Niemi E, Raustia A, Pernu H, Teronen O & Salo T (2001) Matrix metalloproteinases in mild and severe temporomandibular joint internal derangement synovial fluid. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology Endodontics 91:517–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stock SR, Nagaraja S, Barss J, Dahl T & Veis A (2003) X-Ray microCT study of pyramids of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. J Structural Biology 141:9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tanaka A, Kawashiri S, Kumagai S, Takatsuka S, Narinobou M, Nakagawa K & Tanaka S (2000) Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in osteoarthritic fibrocartilage from human mandibular condyle. J Oral Pathology Medicine 29:314–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tarnaud L (2004) Ontogeny of feeding behavior of Eulemur fulvus in the dry forest of Mayotte. International J Primatology 25:803–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Taylor AB, Jones KE, Kunwar R & Ravosa MJ (2006) Dietary consistency and plasticity of masseter fiber architecture in postweaning rabbits. Anatomical Record 288A:1105–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thexton AJ, Hiiemäe KM & Crompton AW (1980) Food consistency and bite size as regulators of jaw movement during feeding in the cat. J Neurophysiology 44:456–474.Google Scholar
  146. Trevisan RA & Scapino RP (1976a) Secondary cartilages in growth and development of the symphysis menti in the hamster. Acta Anatomica 94:40–58.Google Scholar
  147. Trevisan RA & Scapino RP (1976b) The symphyseal cartilage and growth of the symphysis menti in the hamster. Acta Anatomica 96:335–355.Google Scholar
  148. Vincent JFV (1992) Biomechanics – Materials. A Practical Approach. Oxford: IRL Press.Google Scholar
  149. Vinyard CJ & Ravosa MJ (1998) Ontogeny, function, and scaling of the mandibular symphysis in papionin primates. J Morphology 235:157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wainwright PC & Reilly SM, Editors (1994) Ecological Morphology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  151. Wainwright SA, Biggs WD, Currey JD & Gosline JM (1976) Mechanical Design in Organisms. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Wake MH (1982) Morphology, the study of form and function, in modern evolutionary biology. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology. Volume 8. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 289–346.Google Scholar
  153. Watts DP (1985) Observations on the ontogeny of feeding behavior in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). American J Primatology 8:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weijs WA (1975) Mandibular movements of the albino rat during feeding. J Morphology 145:107–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Weijs WA, Brugman P & Klok EM (1987) The growth of the skull and jaw muscles and its functional consequences in the New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Morphology 194:143–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weijs WA, Brugman P & Grimbergen CA (1989) Jaw movements and muscle activity during mastication in growing rabbits. Anatomical Record 224:407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weijs WA & Dantuma R (1975) Electromyography and mechanics of mastication in the albino rat. J Morphology 146:1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Weijs WA & de Jongh HJ (1977) Strain in mandibular alveolar bone during mastication in the rabbit. Archives Oral Biology 22:667–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. West-Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Westneat MW & Hall WG (1992) Ontogeny of feeding motor patterns in infant rats: An electromyographic analysis of suckling and chewing. Behavioral Neurology 106:539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wong FSL, Elliott JC, Anderson P & Davis GR (1995) Mineral concentration gradients in rat femoral diaphyses measured by x-ray microtomography. Calcified Tissue International 56:62–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wong M & Carter DR (2003) Articular cartilage functional histomorphology and mechanobiology: A research perspective. Bone 33:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yardin M (1974) Sur l’ontogénése de la mastication chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Mammalia 38:737–747.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew J. Ravosa
    • 1
  • Elisabeth K. Lopez
  • Rachel A. Menegaz
  • Stuart R. Stock
  • M. Sharon Stack
  • Mark W. Hamrick
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Anatomical SciencesUniversity of Missouri School of Medicine, Medical SciencesBuilding, One Hospital Drive DC055.07 Columbia

Personalised recommendations