Scaling of Reduced Physiologic Cross-Sectional Area in Primate Muscles of Mastication

  • Fred Anapol
  • Nazima Shahnoor
  • Callum F. Ross
Part of the Developments In Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Muscle Force Masticatory Muscle Geometric Similarity Bite Force Little Square Linear Regression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, R. McN. (1974) The mechanics of jumping by a dog (Canis familiaris). J. Zool. Lond. 173:549–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anapol, F. (1984) Morphological and functional diversity within the quadriceps femoris in Lemur fulvus: Architectural, histochemical, and electromyographic considerations. Ph. D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  3. Anapol, F., and Barry, K. (1996) Fiber architecture of the extensors of the hindlimb in semiterrestrial and arboreal guenons. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99(3):429–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anapol, F., and Gray, J. P. (2003) Fiber architecture of the intrinsic muscles of the shoulder and arm in semiterrestrial and arboreal guenons. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 122:51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anapol, F., and Jungers, W. L. (1986) Architectural and histochemical diversity within the quadriceps femoris of the brown lemur (Lemur fulvus). Am. J. Phys Anthropol. 69:355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anapol, F., and Lee, S. (1994) Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 94:239–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anapol, F., Shahnoor, N., and Gray, J. P. (2004) Fiber architecture, muscle function, and behavior: Gluteal and hamstring muscles of semiterrestrial and arboreal guenons. In: Anapol, F., German, R.Z., and Jablonski, N. eds. Shaping Primate Evolution Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  8. Calder, W. A. (1984) Size, Function, and Life History. Dover, Mineola NYGoogle Scholar
  9. Druzinsky, R. E. (1993) The time allometry of mammalian chwing movements: Chewing frequency scales with body mass in mammals. J. theor. Biol. 160:427–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fawcett, D. W. (1986) Bloom and Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology, 11th ed. Philadelphia:Saunders.Google Scholar
  11. Fortelius, M. (1985) Ungulate cheek teeth: Developmental, functional and evolutionary interratlations. Acta Zool. Fenn. 180:1–76.Google Scholar
  12. Gans, C. (1982) Fiber architecture and muscle function. Exerc. Spt. Sci. Rev. 10:160–207.Google Scholar
  13. Gans, C., and Bock W. F. (1965) The functional significance of muscle architecture—a theoretical analysis. Ergeb. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 38:115–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaunt, A. S., and Gans C. (1992) Serially arranged myofibers: An unappreciated variant in muscle architecture. Experientia 48:864–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gould, S. J. (1975) On the scaling of tooth size in mammals. Am. Zool. 15:351–362.Google Scholar
  16. Haxton, H. A. (1944) Absolute muscle force in the ankle flexors of man. J. Physiol. (London). 103:267–273.Google Scholar
  17. Huxley, A. G. (1957) Muscle structure and theories of contraction. Prog. Biophy. Biophy. Chem. 4:255–312.Google Scholar
  18. Kay, R. F. (1975). Allometry and early hominids. Science 189:61–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kay, R. F. (1985). Dental evidence for the diet of Australopithecus. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 14:315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kay, R. F., and Simons E. L. (1980) The ecology of Oligocene African Anthropoidea. Int. J. Primatol. 1(1):21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kleiber, M. (1961) The Fire of Life. New York, Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Lucas, P. W. (2004) Dental Functional Morphology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  23. Martin, R. D. (1990) Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  24. Murphy, R. A., Beardsley, A. C. (1974) Mechanical properties of the cat soleus muscle in situ. Am. J. Physiol. 227:1008–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Perry, J. M. G., and Wall, C. E. (2005) Scaling patterns of physiological cross-sectional area of the chewing muscles in prosimians. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 40:170 (abst.).Google Scholar
  26. Peters, R. H. (1983) The Ecological Implications of Body Size? Cambridge University Press,Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Pilbeam, D., and Gould, S. J. (1974) Size and scaling in human evolution. Science 186:892–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pilbeam, D., and Gould, S. J. (1975) Allometry and early hominids. Science 189:64.Google Scholar
  29. Ross, C. F. (1995) Muscular and osseous anatomy of the primate anterior temporal fossa and the functions of the postorbital septum. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 98:275–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ross, C. F., Reed, D. A., Washington, R. L., Eckhardt, A., Anapol, F., and Shahnoor, N. (2008) Scaling of chew cycle duration in Primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Savage, V. M., Gillooly, J. F., Woodruff, W. H., West, G. B., Allen, A. P., Enquist, B. J., and Brown, J. H. (2004). The predominance of quarter-power scaling in biology. Funct. Ecol. 18:257–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1984) Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. Schumacher, G H. (1961) Funktionelle Morphologie der Kaumuskulatur. Gustav Fischer, Jena. (Trans. By Z. Muhl).Google Scholar
  34. Shahnoor, N. (2004) Morphological Adaptations to Diet in Primate Masticatory Muscles. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, R. J., and Jungers, W. L. (1997) Body mass in comparative primatology. J. Hum. Evol. 32:523–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1981a) Biometry, 2nd ed. WH Freeman:San Francisco.Google Scholar
  37. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1981b) Statistical Tables, 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman:San Francisco.Google Scholar
  38. Vinyard, C. J., and Hanna, J. (2005). Molar scaling in strepsirrhine primates. J Hum Evol 49:241–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weijs, W. A., and Hillen, B. (1985) Cross-sectional areas and estimated intrinsic strength of the human jaw muscles. Acta Morphol. Neerl. Scand. 23:267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Weber EF (1851) Uber die Langenverhaltnisse der Fleischfasern der Muskeln im allgemeinen. Ber. K. sachs. Ges. Wiss. Nat. phys. K1:64–86.Google Scholar
  41. West, G. B., and Brown, J. H. (2005). The origin of allometric scaling laws in biology from genomes to ecosystems: towards a quantitative unifying theory of biological structure and organization. J. Exp. Biol. 208:1575–1592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred Anapol
    • 1
  • Nazima Shahnoor
  • Callum F. Ross
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukee

Personalised recommendations