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The Third Key

  • Vladimir Rubtsov
Chapter
Part of the Astronomers' Universe book series (ASTRONOM)

Zusammenfassung

In February 1960 at the Betatron Laboratory, where the Commander of the Independent Tunguska Exploration Group (ITEG) Gennady Plekhanov worked, a thick packet arrived from Irkursk.

Keywords

Solar Wind Magnetic Storm Geomagnetic Storm Blast Wave Nuclear Explosion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Strictly speaking, a gamma is 1/100,000 of an oersted, the unit of measurement of the magnetic field induction, but this is not important for our considerations. When we are dealing with magnetic fields in the vacuum or in a very rarified air, the difference between magnetic induction and magnetic field intensity becomes negligible.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Matsushita, S. On artificial geomagnetic and ionospheric storms associated with high-altitude explosions. – Journal of Geophysical Research, 1959, Vol. 64, No. 9; Mason, R. G., and Vitousek, M. J. Some geomagnetic phenomena associated with nuclear explosions. – Nature, 1959, Vol. 184, No. 4688.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See Leypunsky, O. I. On the possible magnetic effect of high-altitude explosions of atomic bombs. – Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, 1960, Vol. 38, No. 1 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalashnikov, A. G. On observation of the magnetic meteor effect by the induction method. – Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1949, Vol. 66, No. 3; Kalashnikov, A. G. Magnetic meteor effect. – Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Series, 1952, No. 6 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    See Zhuravlev, V. K., and Zigel, F. Y. The Tunguska Miracle: History of Investigations of the Tunguska Meteorite. Ekaterinburg: Basko, p. 52 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Here is a more detailed description of the Tunguska geomagnetic effect, with some figures. The first entry led to an increase of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (H) for 4 gammas. Its second phase started at 0 h 22 min GMT with a new increase in the H magnitude. In the course of 18 min, it rose for 20 gammas more. For the next 14 min, the H component remained at the same level, after which, at 0 h 36 min GMT, the phase of fall began. During 1 h 41 min, the H component’s value decreased by 67 gammas. The last phase started at about 2 h 17 min GMT and lasted some 3 h, until 5 h 20 min GMT (or 12 h 20 min, local time). The vertical component of the geomagnetic field (Z) did also change, although it returned to its usual value 2 h earlier than the H component – at 3 h 20 min GMT. The magnetograms seemed not to show any change of the magnetic declination. But paying due attention to the usual daily variation of the geomagnetic field, Kim Ivanov and another Russian geophysicist, V. I. Afanasieva, succeeded in discovering alterations in the magnetic declination D as well. It turned out that the plane of the magnetic meridian had deviated by 10 angular minutes to the west and this deviation persisted during 5 to 6 hours.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    See Zhuravlev, V. K. The geomagnetic effect of the Tunguska explosion and the technogeneous hypothesis of the TSB origin. – RIAP Bulletin, 1998, Vol. 4, No. 1–2, p. 9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhuravlev, V. K. op. cit., p. 5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ivanov, K. G. Geomagnetic effects that were observed at the Irkutsk Magnetographic Observatory after the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite. – Meteoritika, Vol. 21, 1961 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Plekhanov, G. F., Kovalevsky, A. F., Zhuravlev, V. K., Vasilyev, N. V. On the geomagnetic effect of the Tunguska meteorite explosion. – Proceedings of Institutions of Higher Educations. Physics. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kovalevsky, A. F. The magnetic effect of the explosion of the Tunguska Meteorite. – The Problem of the Tunguska Meteorite. Tomsk: University Publishing House, 1963, p. 192 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Idlis, G. M., and Karyagina, Z. V. On the cometary nature of the Tunguska meteorite. – Meteoritika, Vol. 21, 1961 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Obashev, S. O. On the geomagnetic effect of the Tunguska meteorite. – Meteoritika, Vol. 21, 1961 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ivanov, K. G. The geomagnetic effect of the Tunguska fall. – Meteoritika, Vol. 24, 1964 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zolotov, A.V. The Problem of the Tunguska Catastrophe of 1908. Minsk: Nauka i Tekhnika, 1969, pp. 161–168 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    See Zhuravlev, V. K. On the interpretation of the geomagnetic effect of 1908. – The Problem of the Tunguska Meteorite. Tomsk: University Publishing House, 1963 (in Russian); Zhuravlev, V. K., Demin, D. V., Demina, L. N. On the mechanism of the magnetic effect of the Tunguska meteorite. – The Problem of the Tunguska Meteorite. Vol. 2, Tomsk: University Publishing House, 1967 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    See Zolotov, A.V. The Problem of the Tunguska Catastrophe of 1908. Minsk: Nauka i Tekhnika, 1969, pp. 155–191 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    See Pasechnik, I. P. Refinement of the moment of explosion of the Tunguska meteorite from the seismic data. – Cosmic Matter and the Earth. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986, p. 66 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    The so-called Alfvén wave – a traveling oscillation of the ions and the magnetic field.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    See Bostick, W. H. Experimental study of ionized matter projected across a magnetic field. – Physical Review, 1956, Vol. 104, No. 2; Bostick, W. H. Experimental study of plasmoids. – Physical Review, 1957, Vol. 106, No. 2.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    See Dmitriev, A. N., and Zhuravlev, V. K. The Tunguska Phenomenon of 1908 as a Kind of Cosmic Connections Between the Sun and the Earth. Novosibirsk: IGIG SO AN SSSR, 1984, pp. 125–127 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sidoras, S. D., and Boyarkina, A. P. Results of paleomagnetic investigations in the region of the Tunguska meteorite fall. – Problems of Meteoritics. Tomsk: University Publishing House, 1976 (in Russian). See also Vasilyev, N. V. The Tunguska Meteorite: A Space Phenomenon of the Summer of 1908. Moscow: Russkaya Panorama, 2004, p. 149 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Astronomische Nachrichten Journal, 1908, Vol. 178, No. 4262, p. 239; see also: Nature, 1908, July 30, p. 305.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    When recording the oscillations, Weber most probably used middle European time which differs from Greenwich time for an hour. We know that the Tunguska explosion occurred at 0 h 14 min GMT; therefore, the variations of the magnetic needle in Kiel stopped 16 min after the moment of the explosion.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bidiukov, B. F. The “Weber Effect” and anomalous luminous phenomena in the Earth‘s atmosphere in the period of the Tunguska event of 1908. – RIAP Bulletin, 2006, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir Rubtsov
    • 1
  1. 1.KharkovUkraine

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