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Funtionalization of Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers for Mitochondria-Targeted Drug and DNA Delivery

  • Volkmar Weissig
  • Sarathi Boddapati
  • Gerard D'Souza
  • Richard W. Horobin
Part of the Fundamental Biomedical Technologies book series (FBMT, volume 4)

Every fifteen minutes, a child is born with a mitochondrial disease or will develop one by the age of five (Cohen, 2006). Mitochondrial diseases are characterized by a bewildering array of signs and symptoms (Naviaux, 2004). For example, one single-point mutation in mitochondrial DNA has been reported to contribute to over nine different disorders such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), schizophrenia, and kidney malfunction [reviewed in Naviaux (2004)]. Although mitochondrial involvement in the pathogenesis of human diseases had already been discussed as early as in 1962 (Luft et al., 1962), the causative link between mitochondrial defects and human diseases was identified for the first time only 26 years later. In 1988, Wallace et al. reported the association of a mitochondrial DNA mutation with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, and Holt et al. (1988) identified mitochondrial DNA deletions in patients suffering from myopathies. Since then, the number of human diseases that have been recognized to be caused by mitochondrial malfunctions has exploded. So far, 347 mitochondrial disorders have been identified (Naviaux, 2004). The majority of them display either neurodegenerative or neuromuscular symptoms. Mitochondrial medicine is currently one of the fastest growing areas in biomedical research (Naviaux, 2004) that has also given rise to new sub-disciplines such as mitochondrial pharmacology (Szewczyk & Wojtczak, 2002) and mitochondrial pharmaceutics (Weissig et al., 2004). The identification of new molecular mitochondrial drug targets in combination with the development of methods for selectively delivering biologically active molecules to the site of mitochondria will potentially launch new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of mitochondria-related diseases, based on the selective protection, or repair or eradication of cells.

Keywords

Mitochondrial Disease Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia HPMA Copolymer Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia Microtubular Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Volkmar Weissig
    • 1
  • Sarathi Boddapati
    • 1
  • Gerard D'Souza
    • 1
  • Richard W. Horobin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurosciences and Biomedical SystemsIBLS University of GlasgowUK

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