Phase angles of voltage phasors of power network buses have always been of special interest to power system engineers. It is well-known that active (real) power flow in a power line is very nearly proportional to the sine of the angle difference between voltages at the two terminals of the line. As many of the planning and operational considerations in a power network are directly concerned with the flow of real power, measuring angle differences across transmission has been of concern for many years. The earliest modern application involving direct measurement of phase angle differences was reported in three papers in early 1980s [1,2,3]. These systems used LORAN-C , GOES satellite transmissions, and the HBG radio transmissions (in Europe) in order to obtain synchronization of reference time at different locations in a power system. The next available positive-going zero-crossing of a phase voltage was used to estimate the local phase angle with respect to the...
KeywordsDiscrete Fourier Transform Inverse Fourier Transform Window Function Symmetrical Component Data Window
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