Lessons Large and Small
Distilling the wisdom accumulated through 21 meetings attended by hundreds of expert and opinionated participants is necessarily an arbitrary process. Consensus was neither sought nor attained from this disparate group, but what follows are some of the main points around which there was a degree of agreement, together with some of the issues where disagreement was notable.
Role of Leaders
To begin with, participants recognized that the activities of national leaders on the international stage differed considerably from their behaviour domestically.1 In both spheres, the leader ’s role was key. At home, as the head of a government, a leader could direct, order, and generally cause things to occur (despite the great variation of constitutional frameworks across the L-20). Leaders could reasonably expect that their directions would be acted upon; in the event of non-compliance, they had recourse to a variety of sanctions.
Obviously, the situation internationally was different. In that...