High Energy-Loss Spectra and Images
The high energy-loss spectrum (E>50 eV) consists primarily of ionization or core-loss edges on a rapidly decreasing plural-scattering background. Elemental-composition data and elemental maps can be extracted from these ionization edges. In this chapter, we’ll examine how to get this information, quantify it, and image it. A good use for such data is lightelement analysis wherein EELS complements XEDS. First, we’ll remind you of the experimental variables over which you have control, because these are rather critical. Then we’ll discuss how to obtain a spectrum and what it should look like if you’re going to quantify it.
KeywordsIonization Cross Section Convergence Angle Collection Angle Edge Intensity Edge Integration
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Books and Reviews
- Brydson, R 2001 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Bios (Royal Microsc. Soc.) Oxford UK. Great basic introduction; lots of practical tips.Google Scholar
- Egerton, RF 1996 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope 2nd Ed. Plenum Press New York. Still the EELS bible. Read more here about the Bethe ridge.Google Scholar
- Hofer, F and Warbichler, P 2004 Elemental Mapping Using Energy-Filtered Imaging in Transmission Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and the EELS Atlas 2nd Ed. 159–233 Ed. CC Ahn Wiley-VCH Weinheim Germany. A thorough review of EFTEM/ESI, full of outstanding examples.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joy, DC 1986a The Basic Principles of EELS, 1986b Quantitative Microanalysis using EELS in Principles of Analytical Electron Microscopy 249–276 and 277–299 Eds. DC Joy, A. Romig Jr. and JI Goldstein Plenum Press New York. Introduction to the principles and in-depth discussion of the experimental details necessary for quantificationGoogle Scholar
- Kohler-Redlich, P and Mayer, J 2003 Quantitative Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy in High-Resolution Imaging and Spectrometry of Materials 119–187 Eds. F Ernst and M Rühle Springer New York. Integrated review of quantitative EELS and other TEM techniques with an emphasis on interfacial studies.Google Scholar
- Reimer, L Ed. 1995 Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy Springer New York. The first book on EFTEM/ESI with all you need to know about the theory and practice, but very few applications.Google Scholar
- Egerton, RF 1981 SIGMAL; A Program For Calculating L-shell Ionization Cross-Sections in Proc. 39th EMSA Meeting198–199 Ed. G.W. Bailey Claitors Baton Rouge LA.Google Scholar
- Leapman RD (2004) EELS Quantitative Analysis in Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and the EELS Atlas 2nd Ed. 49–96 Ed CC Ahn Wiley-VCH Weinheim Germany. A great reference source.Google Scholar
- Unser, M, Ellis, JR, Pun, T and Eden, M 1986 Optimal Background Estimation in EELS J. Microsc. 145 245–256.Google Scholar