Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometers and Filters

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


Electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) is the analysis of the energy distribution of electrons that have come through the specimen. These electrons may have lost no energy or may have suffered inelastic (usually electron-electron) collisions.


Energy Resolution Chromatic Aberration Entrance Aperture Objective Aperture Projector Lens 
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The Instrument

  1. Brydson, R 2001 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy 2001 Bios (Royal Microsc. Soc.) Oxford UK. Good introductory text, similar in content and level to much of this chapter and the subsequent ones.Google Scholar
  2. Castaing, R. and Henry, L 1962 Filtrage Magnétique des Vitesses en Microscopie Electronique C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B255 76–78. The original design for the mirror prism.Google Scholar
  3. Egerton, RF 2003 New Techniques in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Micron 34 127–139 A concise review of recent advances in instrumentation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Egerton, RF, Yang, YY and Cheng, SY 1993 Characterization and Use of the Gatan 666 Parallel-Recording Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometer Ultramicrosc. 48 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hillier, J. and Baker, RF 1944 Microanalysis by Means of Electrons J. Appl. Phys. 15 663–675. History – it’s amazing to read that AEM was essentially all conceived more than 60 years ago.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Metherell, AJF 1971 Energy Analysing and Energy Selecting Electron Microscopes Adv. Opt. Elect. Microsc. 4 263–361 Eds. R Barer and VE Cosslett Academic Press New York. Still the best review of spectrometers.Google Scholar
  7. Uhlemann, S and Rose, H 1996 Acceptance of Imaging Energy Filters Ultramicrosc. 63 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Background Data

  1. Ahn, CC Ed. 2004 Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science 2nd Ed. Wiley-VCH Weinheim Germany. Updated version of the Disko et al. text (below).Google Scholar
  2. Disko, MM, Ahn, CC and Fultz, B Eds. 1992 Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and the EELS Atlas TMS Warrendale PA. Multi-author, practical text.Google Scholar
  3. Egerton, RF 1986 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Plenum Press New York. The bible of EELS; required reading for all serious spectroscopists.Google Scholar
  4. Egerton, RF 1996 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope 2nd Ed. Plenum Press New York. Second edition of the EELS bible.Google Scholar


  1. Batson PE 2004 Electron Energy Loss Studies of Semiconductors in Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science 2nd Ed. 353–384 Ed. CC Ahn Wiley-VCH Weinheim Germany.Google Scholar
  2. Gloter, A, Douiri, A, Tencé, M and Colliex, C 2003 Improving Energy Resolution of EELS Spectra: an Alternative to the Monochromator Solution Ultramicrosc. 96 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hunt, JA and Williams, DB Electron Energy-Loss Spectrum Imaging Ultramicrosc. 38 47–73.Google Scholar
  4. Kimoto, K, Kothleitner, G, Grogger, W, Masui, Y and Hofer, F 2005 Advantages of a Monochromator for Bandgap Measurements Using Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy Micron 36 185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Spence, JCH 2006 Absorption Spectroscopy with Sub-Angstrom Beams: ELS in STEM Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 725–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

The EELS Workshop Reports

  1. The quadrennial EELS workshops (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006) pioneered and often organized and edited by Krivanek are a rich source of papers by the leading researchers in the field describing cutting-edge aspects of EELS and related techniques. Often the proceedings are published separately and are divided between methodology/instrumentation and practice. The respective journals (either complete volumes or part thereof) and editors are listed below.Google Scholar
  2. Krivanek, OL Ed. 1991 Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 2 (# 2–3).Google Scholar
  3. Krivanek, OL Ed. 1995a Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 6 1.Google Scholar
  4. Krivanek, OL Ed. 1995b Ultramicrosc. 59 (# 1–4).Google Scholar
  5. Krivanek, OL Ed. 1999 Ultramicrosc. 78 (# 1–4).Google Scholar
  6. Krivanek, OL Ed. 1999 Micron 30 (#2) 101.Google Scholar
  7. Krivanek, OL Ed. 2003 Ultramicrosc. 96 (#2–4) 229.Google Scholar
  8. Krivanek, OL Ed. 2003 J. Microsc. 210 1.Google Scholar
  9. Browning, ND and Midgley, P Eds. 2006 Ultramicrosc. 106 (#11–12).Google Scholar
  10. Mayer, J Ed. 2006 Micron 37 375.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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