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X-ray Spectrometry

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter

Abstract

To make use of the X-rays generated when the beam strikes the specimen, we have to detect them and identify from which element they originated. This is accomplished by X-ray spectrometry, which is one way to transform the TEM into a far more powerful instrument, called an analytical electron microscope (AEM). Currently, the only commercial spectrometer that we use on theTEM is an X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (XEDS), which uses a Si semiconductor detector or sometimes a Ge detector. New detector technologies are emerging, which we’ll describe briefly. While some of these may render the Si detector obsolete, we’ll nevertheless emphasize this particular detector.

Keywords

Count Rate Analytical Electron Microscope Dead Time Dead Layer Charge Pulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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General Texts

  1. Garratt-Reed, AJ and Bell, DC 2002 Energy-dispersive X-ray Analysis in the Electron Microscope Bios (Royal Microsc. Soc.) Oxford UK. Similar in scope to the XEDS chapters in this textbook.Google Scholar
  2. Goldstein, JI, Newbury, DE, Echlin, P, Joy, DC, Romig, AD Jr, Lyman, C., Fiori, CE and Lifshin, E 2003 Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis 3rd Ed. Springer New York. In-depth treatment of all aspects of XEDS in the SEM/EPMA. Includes details of the electronics (Section 3.2.7)Google Scholar
  3. Goodhew, PJ, Humphreys, FJ, and Beanland, R 2001 Electron Microscopy and Analysis 3rd Ed. Taylor and Francis New York. A broad introduction covering SEM, TEM, and AEM.Google Scholar
  4. Jones, IP 1992 Chemical Microanalysis Using Electron Beams Institute of Materials London. Quantitative AEM; lots of calculations to illustrate the analytical principles; essential for the serious X-ray analyst.Google Scholar
  5. Williams, DB, Goldstein, JI and Newbury, DE, Eds. 1995 X-Ray Spectrometry in Electron Beam Instruments Plenum Press New York. Tells all you need to know and more about X-ray detection and processing in SEM/EPMA (mainly) and TEM.Google Scholar

References For The Chapter

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  3. Lund, MW 1995 Current Trends in Si(Li) Detector Windows for Light Element Analysis in X-Ray Spectrometry in Electron Beam Instruments DB Williams, JI Goldstein and DE Newbury, Eds. 21–31 Plenum Press New York. Detailed review of windows.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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