Other Imaging Techniques

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


Much of what we’ve discussed in the preceding imaging chapters is what we might call ‘classical’ TEM imaging. It began with BF and DF techniques and quickly expanded to include many beams. Diffraction contrast, phase contrast, and to a lesser extent, mass-thickness contrast are the mechanisms we use to characterize our specimens. We control the contrast by inserting the objective aperture, or a STEM detector, and excluding or collecting electrons that have been scattered by the different processes. However, there are variations to the standard ways in whichwe can extractmore information from aTEMimage; in this chapter, we’ll present a brief overview of some of them. Most of these operational modes that we’ll discuss here are somewhat esoteric and have rather specialized applications. Nevertheless, you should know that they exist because they may be just what you need to solve your particular problem.


Objective Lens Flux Line Thin Specimen Stem Image Objective Aperture 
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References Philosophy

  1. Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes; 1900–1979) worked in Rugby, England with the British Thomson-Houston company. This company was already merged with the Metropolitan-Vickers company and in 1960 became part of the holding company, Associated Electrical Industries (AEI). The early TEMs, including the HVEMs, in England were manufactured by AEI. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1971 for discovering holography.Google Scholar


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  1. Electron holography: The following key articles will give you a sense of the possible applications but you also have the monograph by Tonomura. An electron holography plug-in is available for digital micrograph.Google Scholar
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Magnetic Materials

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  1. Newbury, DE, Joy, DC, Echlin, P, Fiori, CE and Goldstein, JI 1986 Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, p. 45 Plenum Press New York. Review of CL imaging. Compare to Section 29.10.Google Scholar
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SEM in the TEM

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Fluctuation Microscopy

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Combined Techniques

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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