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High-Resolution TEM

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter

Abstract

We will now rethink what we mean by a TEM, in a way that is more suitable for HRTEM, where the purpose is to maximize the useful detail in the image. (Note the word useful here.) You should think of the microscope as an optical device that transfers information from the specimen to the image. The optics consists of a series of lenses and apertures aligned along the optic (symmetry) axis. What we would like to do is to transfer all the information from the specimen to the image, a process known as mapping. There are two problems to overcome and we can never be completely successful in transferring all the information. First, as you know from Chapter 6, the lens system is not perfect so the image is distorted and you lose some data because the lens has a finite size (Abbe’s theory). The second problem is we have to interpret the image using an atomistic model for the material.

Keywords

Transfer Function Objective Lens HRTEM Image High Spatial Frequency Spherical Aberration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. One of the pioneers in the interpretation of HRTEM images was the late John Cowley. Much of our analysis of the specimen transfer function, f(x,y), follows directly from his teaching. When pronouncing names, don’t confuse Lord Rayleigh (born John William Strutt) with Walter Raleigh. Otto Scherzer was professor in Darmstadt and actually built an aberration corrector for his TEM. He was succeeded at Darmstadt by Harald Rose who with his former student, Max Haidar, made aberration correction work for the rest of us. Ondrej Krivanek and Nicolas Delby did the same for STEMs. Articles by Shannon and Weaver 1964, Van Dyck 1992 on information theory will start you on this topic; for HRTEM, you must then have access to John Spence’s book.Google Scholar

Essential Further Reading

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New Insights

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Delocalization

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Information Limit and Information Theory

  1. Van Dyck, D 1992 in Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, p 193, World Scientific, River Edge New Jersey. Gives more detail on the derivation of equations 28.19 and 28.55 and on information theory for the TEM.Google Scholar
  2. Van Dyck, D and De Jong, AF 1992 Ultimate Resolution and Information in Electron Microscopy: General Principles Ultramicrosc., 47 266–281. On the information limit—part 1.Google Scholar
  3. de Jong, AF and Van Dyck, D 1993 Ultimate Resolution and Information in Electron Microscopy. II. The Information Limit of Transmission Electron Microscopes Ultramicrosc. 49, 66–80. On the information limit—part 2.Google Scholar
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More Theory

  1. Cowley, JM 1992 in Electron Diffraction Techniques 1, (Ed. JM Cowley), p. 1, IUCr. Oxford Science Publication. More extensive discussion of equations 28.20 and 28.21.Google Scholar
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Materials Applications

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  4. Carter, CB, Elgat, Z and Shaw, TM 1986 Twin Boundaries Parallel to the Common-{111} Plane in Spinel Phil. Mag. A55, 1–19. Early study of spinel showing that you don’t always need the highest resolution. See also p21–38.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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