Planar Defects

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


Internal interfaces (grain boundaries, phase boundaries, stacking faults) or external interfaces (i.e., surfaces) are surely the most important defects in crystalline engineering materials. Their common feature is that we can usually think of them as all being two-dimensional, or planar, defects (even though they’re not really). The main topics of this chapter will be ■ Characterizing which type of internal interface we have and determining its main parameters. ■ Identifying lattice translations at these interfaces from the appearance of the diffractioncontrast images.


Planar Defect Bloch Wave Dispersion Surface Diffraction Contrast Ewald Sphere 
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  1. We suggest a few books or chapters of books for background reading. You’ll realize that careers have been built on this topic. As usual, we also recommend that you read some of the original papers.Google Scholar


  1. Christian, JW 1975 The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Part 1, 2nd edition, Pergamon Press New York.Google Scholar
  2. Carter, CB and Norton, MG 2007 Ceramic Materials Springer New York. Chapters illustrating interfaces in ceramics.Google Scholar
  3. Forwood, CT and Clarebrough, LM 1991 Electron Microscopy of Interfaces in Metals and Alloys, Adam Hilger New York. Invaluable for anyone studying interfaces by TEM.Google Scholar
  4. Howe, JM 1997 Interfaces in Materials: Atomic Structure, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Solid-Vapor, Solid-Liquid and Solid-Solid Interfaces Wiley New York.Google Scholar
  5. Matthews, John Wauchope 1975, Epitaxial Growth Academic Press/Elsevier New York. Unfortunate use of ‘epitaxial’ instead of epitactic by a pioneer in the subject. (Yes, the father of Dave Matthews.)Google Scholar
  6. Sutton, AP and Balluffi, RW 1995 Interfaces in Crystalline Materials, Oxford University Press New York.Google Scholar
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Thinking About Contrast

  1. The book by Head et al. (see Section 1.5) is the starting text for simulating diffraction-contrast images.Google Scholar
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The Column Approximation

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Extinction Distances

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  1. The original citation is the text by Head et al. (Section 1.5). It is still useful reading but needs a trip to the library.Google Scholar
  2. Rasmussen, DR and Carter, CB 1991 A Computer Program for Many-Beam Image Simulation of Amplitude-Contrast Images J. Electron Microsc. Techniques 18, 429–36. An idea of what we need in a user-friendly (Comis) program.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Rasmussen, DR, McKernan, S and Carter, CB 1991 Rigid-Body Translation and Bonding Across {110} Antiphase Boundaries in GaAs Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2629–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schaublin, R and Stadelmann, P 1993 Method for Simulating Electron Microscope Dislocation Images Mater. Sci. Engng. A164, 373–8. The paper describing CuFour.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thölen AR 1970 A Rapid Method for Obtaining Electron Microscope Contrast Maps of Various Lattice Defects Phil. Mag. 22, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Thölen AR 1970 On the Ambiguity Between Moiré Fringes and the Electron Diffraction Contrast from Closely Spaced Dislocations Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 2, 537–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Viguier, B, Hemker, KJ and Vanderschaeve, G 1994 Factors Affecting Stacking Fault Contrast in Transmission Electron Microscopy: Comparisons with Image Simulations Phil. Mag. A69, 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Zhou, Z 2005 Electron Microscopy and Elastic Diffuse Scattering of Nanostructures D.Phil. Thesis, Oxford University. Zhongfu developed TEMACI.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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