Obtaining CBED Patterns

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


We know that SAD, while giving us useful information about the specimen, has two severe limitations.


Objective Lens Thick Specimen Thin Specimen Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction Convergence Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Champness, PE 2001 Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope BIOS Oxford UK. A concise and essential summary textbook full of useful examples often from non-cubic systems, since the author is a mineralogist not a metallurgist.Google Scholar
  2. Morniroli, J-P 2002 Large-Angle Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction SFμ (Société Française des Microscopies) Paris France. Highly recommended reading for serious students for whom CBED will be an important tool.Google Scholar
  3. Reimer. L (Ed.) 1995 Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy Springer-Verlag New York. For some specifics.Google Scholar
  4. Reimer, L 1997 Transmission Electron Microscopy; Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis (4th Ed.) Springer New York. For more specifics.Google Scholar
  5. Spence, JCH and Zuo, JM (Eds.) 1992 Electron Microdiffraction Kluwer New York. The book for the dedicated CBED researcher.Google Scholar
  6. Steeds, JW 1979 Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction in Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy 387–422 Eds. JJ Hren, JI Goldstein and DC Joy Plenum Press, New York. The first book-chapter dedicated to the technique and still a superb introduction.Google Scholar

The Jeol CBED Atlas

  1. This set of four volumes is perhaps the definitive work on CBED and describes an alternative approach to much of what is discussed in Chapters 20 and 21 and also in the companion text. The texts contain hundreds of beautiful and useful patterns.Google Scholar
  2. Tanaka, M and Terauchi, M 1985 Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction JEOL Tokyo.Google Scholar
  3. Tanaka, M, Terauchi, M and Kaneyama, T 1988 Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction II JEOL Tokyo.Google Scholar
  4. Tanaka, M, Terauchi, M and Tsuda, T 1994 Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction III JEOL Tokyo.Google Scholar
  5. Tanaka, M, Terauchi, M and Tsuda, T 2002 Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction IV JEOL Tokyo.Google Scholar


  1. Also see the references in Chapter 9.Google Scholar
  2. Kossel, W and Möllenstedt, G 1938 Elektroneninterferenzen im konvergenten Bündel Naturwissenschaften 26 660–661.Google Scholar

Applications and Techniques

  1. Heilmann, P, Clark, WAT and Rigney, DA 1983 Orientation Determination of Subsurface Cells Generated by Sliding Acta Met. 31(8) 1293–1305.Google Scholar
  2. Humphreys, CJ, Maher, DM, Fraser, HL and Eaglesham, DJ 1988 Convergent Beam Imaging – A Transmission Electron Microscopy Technique for Investigating Small Localized Distortions in Crystals Phil. Mag. 58A 787–798. CBIM.Google Scholar
  3. Jones, PM, Rackham, GM and Steeds, JW 1977 Higher Order Laue Zone Effects in Electron Diffraction and Their Use in Lattice Parameter Determination Proc. Roy. Soc. A354 197–222. When you have the time to really study HOLZ lines.Google Scholar
  4. Steeds, JW 1981 Microanalysis by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction in Quantitative Microanalysis with High Spatial Resolution 210–216 Eds. GW Lorimer, MH Jacobs and P Doig The Metals Society London. For the terminology in Section 20.3.A.Google Scholar
  5. Tanaka, M, Saito, R, Ueno, K and Harada, Y 1980 Large Angle CBED J. Electr. Microsc. 29 408–412.Google Scholar
  6. Tanaka, M 1986 Conventional Transmission-Electron-Microscopy Techniques in Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction J. Electr. Microsc. 35 314–323. Includes a good review of hollow-cone CBED.Google Scholar
  7. Wu, L, Zhu, Y and Taftø, J 1999 Towards Quantitative Measurements of Charge Transfer in Complex Crystals Using Imaging and Diffraction of Fast Electrons Micron 30 357–369.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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