Obtaining and Indexing Parallel-Beam Diffraction Patterns


The core strength ofTEMis that you can obtain both a DP and an image from the same part of your specimen (not to mention various spectra). To obtain the crystallographic data, a method for interpreting and indexing the DP is essential and this aspect is the theme for the next four chapters. We’ll start in this chapter by considering classic selected-area diffraction (SAD) patterns (SADPs) and how to index them, but also introduce other related, if less widely used, parallel-beam diffraction methods.


Orientation Relationship Amorphous Material Great Circle Reciprocal Lattice Stereographic Projection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. We list more references than usual in this chapter. You'll want to see many different examples so go to the originals where possible.Google Scholar

Crystallography and Diffraction

  1. Andrews, KW, Dyson, DJ and Keown, SR 1971 Interpretation of Electron Diffraction Patterns 2nd Ed. Plenum Press New York. An essential resource for anyone using electron diffraction.Google Scholar
  2. Burger, MJ 1978 Elementary Crystallography MIT Press Cambridge Massachusetts. One of the classics. Find it in the library.Google Scholar
  3. Champness, PE 2001 Electron Diffraction in the TEM Bios (RMS) Oxford UK. Superb, concise introductory text; full of great examples.Google Scholar
  4. Cullity, BD and Stock, SR 2001 Elements of X-ray Diffraction 3rd Ed. Prentice-Hall New York. The standard text on XRD.Google Scholar
  5. Edington, JW 1976 Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science Van Nostrand-Reinhold New York. Part 2 of the book is full of useful hints and examples on analyzing DPs.Google Scholar
  6. Giacovazzo, C, Monaco, HL, Artioli, G, Viterbo, D, Ferraris, G, Gilli, G, Zanotti, G and Catti, M 2002 Fundamentals of Crystallography 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press and IUCr Oxford. A comprehensive reference book.Google Scholar
  7. Glazer, AM 1987 The Structure of Crystals Adam Hilger Bristol United Kingdom. The essentials condensed into a 50-page monograph. Find it in the libraryGoogle Scholar
  8. Hammond, C 1992 Introduction to Crystallography 2nd Ed. Royal Microscopical Society Oxford United Kingdom. An excellent compact introduction to the subject with a nice section on the biographies of crystallographers.Google Scholar
  9. Johari, O and Thomas, G 1969 The Stereographic Projection and Its Applications in Techniques of Metals Research Ed. RF Bunshah Interscience New York. A very helpful book if you can find a copy in your library (it's out of print).Google Scholar
  10. Kelly, A, Groves, GW and Kidd, P 2000 Crystallography and Crystal Defects Wiley New York. Update of the classic 1970 edition. All materials scientists should already have one on their shelves. Not only the standard introductory text on this subject but also gives a good review of the stereographic projection.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, C and Hurlbut, CS 1985 Manual of Mineralogy Wiley New York. This is the modern version of the original classic by James D Dana. It gives an excellent readable review of the stereographic projection and its relation to the globe, plus basic crystallography.Google Scholar
  12. Lisle, RJ and Leyshon, PR 2004 Stereographic Projection Techniques for Geologists and Civil Engineers 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press New York.Google Scholar
  13. Smaill, JS 1972 Metallurgical Stereographic Projections Adam Hilger Ltd London. Chapter 20 is another source for stereographic projections and the Wulff net if you can find a copy.Google Scholar
  14. Vainshtein, BK 1981 Modern Crystallography 1–IV Springer-Verlag New York. No longer modern but more of a classic.Google Scholar
  15. Villars, P and Calvert, LD 1991 Pearson's Handbook of Crystallographic Data for Intermetallic Phases 2nd Ed. ASM Metals Park Ohio. This text is now in many volumes covering an ever-growing number of materials.Google Scholar
  16. Wells, AF 1984 Structural Inorganic Chemistry 6th Ed. Oxford University Press New York. The source for crystal-structure data in inorganic materials.Google Scholar

Amorphous Materials

  1. Graczyk, JF and Chaudhari, P 1973 A Scanning Electron Diffraction Study of Vapor-Deposited and Ion Implanted Thin Films of Ge. I Phys. Stat. Sol. B58 163–179. Early modeling; you should check other papers by these authors if you're working in this area.Google Scholar
  2. Howie, A 1988 in High-Resolution Transmission Microscopy and Associated Techniques p 607 Eds. P Buseck, J Cowley and L Eyring Oxford University Press New York. On amorphous materials.Google Scholar
  3. McCulloch, DG, McKenzie, DR, Goringe, CM, Cockayne, DJH, McBride, W, Green, DC 1999 Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Structure in Thin Disordered Films Acta Cryst. A55(2) 178–187.Google Scholar
  4. Rudee, ML and Howie, A 1972 The Structure of Amorphous Si and Ge Phil. Mag. 25 1001–1007.Google Scholar
  5. Treacy, MMJ, Gibson, JM, Fan, L, Paterson, DJ and McNulty, I 2005 Fluctuation Microscopy: a Probe of Medium Range Order Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 2899–2944.Google Scholar

Diffraction Techniques

  1. Dingley, DJ 2000 in Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science p1 Eds. AJ Schwartz, M Kumar and BL Adams KluwerNew York.Google Scholar
  2. Lyman, CE and Carr, MJ 1992 in Electron Diffraction Techniques 2 p 373 Ed. JM Cowley Oxford University Press New York.Google Scholar
  3. Morniroli, JP, Redjaimia, A and Nicolopoulos, S 2007 Contribution of Electron Precession to the Identification of the Space Group from Microdiffraction Patterns Ultramicroscopy 107 514–522. Google Scholar
  4. Own, CS, Marks, LD and Sinkler, W Electron Precession: a Guide for Implementation Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2005 76 33703-1-13.Google Scholar
  5. Randle, V and Ralph, B 1986 A Practical Approach to the Determination of the Crystallography of Grain Boundaries J. Mater. Sci. 21 3823–3828.Google Scholar
  6. Schwartz, AJ, Kumar, M and Adams, BL (Eds.) 2000 Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science KluwerNew York.Google Scholar
  7. Tietz, LA, Carter, CB and McKernan, S1995 Top-Bottom Effects in Double Diffraction Ultramicroscopy 60 241–246. A challenge on ‘double diffraction.’Google Scholar
  8. Vainshtein, BK, Zuyagin, BB and Avilov, AV 1992 in Electron Diffraction Techniques 1 p 216 Ed. JM Cowley Oxford University Press New York.Google Scholar
  9. Vincent, R and Midgley, PA 1994 Double Conical Beam-Rocking System for Measurement of Integrated Electron Diffraction Intensities Ultramicroscopy 53 271–282. Precession diffraction.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations