High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy
Biological macromolecules are responsible for the vital activities of life. Among the various approaches to understanding their functional mechanisms, the most straightforward approach is to directly visualize the structure and dynamic action of biological macromolecules at high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the microscopy needed to enable such visualization was not available until the recent development of high-speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). This allows the recording of images of biological samples at 30–60 ms/frame without disturbing delicate biomolecular interactions and hence the delineation of time-series events that occur in biomolecules at work. This chapter describes various devices and techniques developed for high-speed AFM and imaging studies performed on several protein systems.
KeywordsPiezoelectric Actuator Proportional Integral Derivative Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine Planar Lipid Bilayer Proportional Integral Derivative Controller
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