Public Sector Research, Development, and Regulation

  • Jove Graham
Part of the Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMENG)

“Industry, or academia?”

“Industry, or academia?”

“Industry, or academia?”

This was the question I heard over and over again as I was preparing to graduate with my PhD in bioengineering in the spring of 2002. Everyone wanted to know what career path I was going to choose after graduation, and the question was always phrased as if there were only two possible choices for a bioengineer: industry or academia. Was I going to look for an engineering job at a medical device company? Or would I apply for a post-doc, or perhaps an assistant professorship at a university?

It is easy to feel as if those are the only two options when you are immersed in the everyday experience of being a student. On one hand, you may be a poor, starving student at the moment, but, all in all, academia may seem like a pretty good lifestyle. You might look at your professors and think, “I could be like them.” On the other hand, perhaps you are tired of the academic scene. Perhaps you have friends who have graduated...


Failure Mode Medical Device Standard Test Method Potential Failure Mode Medical Device Industry 
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    Congressional Budget Office, “Changes in federal civilian employment: an update,” May 2001.Google Scholar
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    Bureau of Labor Statistics, “May 2005 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates,” available at
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    Congressional Budget Office, “Comparing federal salaries with those in the private sector,” CBO Memorandum, July 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jove Graham
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Office of Device Evaluation, Division of General, Neurological and Restorative Devices, Orthopedic Spinal Devices BranchSorryMaryland
  2. 2.Geisinger Center for Health ResearchSorryDanvilleUSA

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