Future Directions

  • Mark Choh
  • Theodore J. Saclarides


Since transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was introduced in the mid-1980s, it has been well established that the technique is a safe and effective method to excise adenomas of the rectum. It is also clear that rectal carcinomas can adequately be resected using TEM techniques if appropriate patient selection criteria are employed. Many of these lesions would have previously required a laparotomy for removal. In addition, removal of other lesions such as carcinoids, rectal schwannomas, and rectal endometriosis has been described [1, 2, 3, 4]. Currently, the spectrum of uses for TEM is mainly limited to those just mentioned. With respect to extended applications, all that is required is creative thinking.

Currently, there are only scattered mentions in the literature reporting the use of TEM for conditions other than the excision of rectal tumors. Salm et al. [5] retrospectively reviewed 1,900 TEM-assisted procedures performed in Germany at 57 centers—of these, only 2.9%...


Rectal Prolapse Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Rectovaginal Fistula Transanal Excision Flap Repair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Choh
    • 1
  • Theodore J. Saclarides
  1. 1.Rush Medical College, Rush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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