Clinical Trials

  • Kim F. Rhoads
  • Julio E. Garcia-Aguilar


Total mesorectal excision (TME) is accepted today as the standard surgical therapy for rectal cancer. Tumors located in the middle or upper third of the rectum can be removed with a restorative anterior resection or low anterior resection (LAR), while those in the lower third have been historically treated with abdominoperineal resection. These aggressive surgical approaches adhere to the successful paradigm of wide resection with a diagnostic and possibly therapeutic lymphadenectomy. Owing to the radical nature of these operations, however, they can and do result in significant mortality, morbidity [1, 2, 3] and functional disturbances [4, 5].

Local excision, whether performed by the conventional transanal approach or by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), is a less invasive alternative approach to the treatment of early rectal cancer. While local excision can be potentially curative for tumors limited to the rectal wall, recent series have reported high rates of local...


Rectal Cancer Local Excision Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Chemoradiation Therapy Early Rectal Cancer 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim F. Rhoads
    • 1
  • Julio E. Garcia-Aguilar
  1. 1.Mt. Zion Cancer CenterUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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