Colon and rectal cancer is a major health problem in industrialized societies. In the USA alone there are approximately 145,000 new cases of colorectal cancer per year and approximately 42,000 of these patients are diagnosed with rectal cancer. Moreover, colon and rectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in North America. In fact, 40,000–50,000 deaths can be attributed to colon and rectal cancer each year in the USA alone [1, 2]. A new diagnosis of rectal cancer is very worrisome for many patients because of the need for radical surgery and its potential side effects and consequences. Alterations in bowel and bladder function, sexual dysfunction and, most importantly, the possibility of radical surgery resulting in the need for a permanent colostomy all weigh heavily on the minds of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer.
Locally advanced tumors of the mid and distal rectum (stage II and III...
KeywordsRectal Cancer Total Mesorectal Excision Local Excision Local Recurrence Rate Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery
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