A paradoxical change took place in US intellectual life after World War II. A country whose traditions had always tended (and in many respects still tends) to the pragmatic and practical side built a vast new complex of research universities, research specialties, and institutes. The United States became the world leader for theoretical explorations in the natural and social sciences. In my earlier professional field this growth was marked by increase in the number of marine or oceanographic institutions from 16 in 1956 to 134 in 1976.


Policy Analysis American Petroleum Institute Reagan Administration Professional Agency Environmental Defense Fund 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank T. Manheim
    • 1
  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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