The rise of Germany as a major national power in the nineteenth century is a classic chapter in the use of science in national development. In comparison with Britain and France, which had become wealthy through their colonies and international trade, Germany in the early nineteenth century was fragmented into many principalities, impoverished, and backward. After the 1850s, Germany became the first country in the world to rise to the front rank of nations through scientific research and applications, creating the modern research university in the process. How it did so is relevant to environmental policy and effective use of science in US national life today.


National Marine Fishery Service Environmental Defense Fund Emission Reduction Technology Natural Resource Defense Council Offshore Sand 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank T. Manheim
    • 1
  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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