In June of 1985, an Argentine–American tourist was hospitalized in Beijing’s Xiehe Hospital with a pulmonary infection and subsequent respiratory failure. During his hospitalization, he was diagnosed with PCP and AIDS, thereby becoming the first person to be diagnosed with HIV in China (First AIDS case, 2001).

In the same year, four hemophiliacs in Zhejiang province tested positive for anti-HIV antibodies (Zhejiang HIV/AIDS patients, 2005). After ruling out other risk factors such as risky sexual contact, intravenous drug use, and mother-to-child transmission, it was determined that all four people had received Factor VIII treatment in which imported HIV-contaminated products were used. This revelation raised the likelihood that HIV had entered China before 1985.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Drug User Plasma Donor MTCT Rate DeHong Prefecture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A Joint Assessment of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Care in China. (2004). 12, State Council AIDS Working Committee Office and UN Theme Group on HIV/AIDS in ChinaGoogle Scholar
  2. Carr, J.K. et al. (1996). Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. J Virol, 70, 5935–5943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cassol, S. et al. (1996). Detection of HIV type 1 env subtypes A, B, C, and E in Asia using dried blood spots: A new surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 12, 1435–1441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, X.J., Cai, W.P., Chen J.F., et al. (2003). Fungal infection and resistance to antifungal agents in patients with HIV/AIDS. Chin J AIDS/STD, 19, 205–207Google Scholar
  5. Children On The Brink. (2002). A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies. UNAIDS/UniCEF/USAIDGoogle Scholar
  6. China Ministry of Health. (1997). Blood Donation Law of the People’s Republic of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  7. China Ministry of Health. (2003). A Joint Assessment of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Cases in China[R]Google Scholar
  8. China UN Theme Group on HIV/AIDS for the UN Country Team in China, HIV/AIDS. (2001).China’s Titanic Peril (2001 update of the AIDS situation and needs assessment report, UNAIDS, Beijing). UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, 1–160Google Scholar
  9. First AIDS Case, How It was Found in China. , The Xinhua News Agency, 30 November 2001Google Scholar
  10. Graf, M., et al. (1998). Cloning and characterization of a virtually full-length HIV type 1 genome from a subtype B ′-Thai strain representing the most prevalent B-cladeisolate in China. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 14, 285–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Graham, C.S., Koziel, M.J. (2003). First things first: Balancing Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis, 36, 368–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jin Wei. (2004). AIDS is a social problem. In: AIDS in China. International publishing House for Chinese Culture, WA, USA. pp. 90–93Google Scholar
  13. Kato, K., et al. (1999). Genetic similarity of HIV type 1 subtype E in a recent outbreak among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam to strains in Guangxi Province of southern China. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 15, 1157–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaufman, J., Jing, J. (2002). China and AIDS – the time to act is now. Science, 296, 2339–2340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Laeyendecker, O., et al. (2005). Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes in southern China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 38, 356–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Bingxi, Wang Lin, Zhou Xinhua. (2003). Clinical analysis of 21 cases from pulmonary tuberculosis related AIDS. Chin J Prev Tuberculosis, 25(1), 21–23Google Scholar
  17. Li, G.H., Chen, H.H., He, Y., et al. (2002). An investigation on HIV-1 transmission from mother to children in selected areas of China. Chin J STD/AIDS Prev Cont, 8(4), 204–208Google Scholar
  18. Li Xiaolin, Xu Jingya. (2004). A case of AIDS complicated Histoplamosis. J Cent South Univ (Med Sci), 29(4), P400, P413Google Scholar
  19. Li Xinghua, Chen He-he, He Yun, et al. (2001). A clinical report on 482 AIDS cases, Chin J Infect Chemother, 1(3), P129–P132Google Scholar
  20. Li Zhenmin. (2004). AIDS and tuberculosis. Chin J AIDS/STD, 10(1), 74–75Google Scholar
  21. Li, D.Q., Zheng, X.W., Zhang, G.Y. (1996). Study on the distribution HIV-1 C subtype in Ruili and other counties, Yunnan, China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 17, 337–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu Chongbai. (1998). The epidemia features and associated factors of Viral Hepatitis in China. Zhong Hua gan bing zha zhi, 6, 67–70Google Scholar
  23. Luo, C.C., et al. (1995). HIV-1 subtype C in China. Lancet, 345, 1051–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luo Jiala, Gui Xi’en, Zhuang Ke. (2003). A study on the prevalence of anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HGV among people infected with HIV. World Chinese J Digestol, 11(11), 1835–1836Google Scholar
  25. McCutchan, F.E., et al. (1996). Diversity of the envelope glycoprotein among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of clade E from Asia and Africa. J Virol, 70, 3331–3338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ministry of Health People’s Republic of China. (2006). 2005 Update on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Response in China. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  27. Ministry of Health reports AIDS epidemic in China. (2006). The China AIDS Prevention. p. 176Google Scholar
  28. National Debt of 1.25 Billion RMB to Support Building Blood Bank. (2002). The Prople’s Daily Overseas, p. A1Google Scholar
  29. Piyasirisilp, S. et al. (2000). A recent outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in southern China was initiated by two highly homogeneous, geographically separated strains, circulating recombinant form AE and a novel BC recombinant. J Virol, 74, 11286–11295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robertson, D.L., et al. (1995). Recombination in HIV-1. Nature, 374, 124–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shao, Y., Zhao, F., Yang, W. (1999). The identification of recombinant HIV-1 strains in IDUs in southwest and northwest China. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi, 13, 109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Song Jianxin, Xing Mingyou, Tan Mingge, et al. (2003). Analysis on clinical characteristics of 146 cases of HIV-/TB. J HuaZhong Univ Sci Tech (Health Sci), 32(6), 625–627Google Scholar
  33. Soriano, V., Sulkowski, M., Bergin, C., et al. (2002). Care of patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV co-infection: Recommendations from the HIV-HCV International Panel [J]. AIDS, 16, 813–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Su, L., et al. (2000). Characterization of a virtually full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome of a prevalent intersubtype (C/B’) recombinant strain in China. J Virol, 74, 11367–11376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Su, B., et al. (2003). HIV-1 subtype B’ dictates the AIDS epidemic among paid blood donors in the Henan and Hubei provinces of China. Aids, 17, 2515–2520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sun jie. (2003). An Analysis of the epidemic of AIDS in China. Chin J Frontier Health Quarantine, 26, 367–368Google Scholar
  37. Tillmann, H.L., Heiken, H., Knapik-Botor, A., Heringlake, S., Ockenga, J., Wilber, J.C., Goergen, B., Detmer, J., Mcmorrow, M., Stoll, M., Schmidt, R.E., Manns, M.P. (2001). Infection with GB virus-C and reduced mortality among HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med, 345, 715–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tillmann, H.L., Manns, M.P. (2001). GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Antiviral Res, 52, 83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tori, C., Lapadula, G., Casari, S., et al. (2005). Incidence and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation during highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: Results from the Italian EPOKA-MASTER Cohort. BMC Infect Dis, 2005, 5, 58. Published online 2005 July 14, doi 10.1186/1471–2334-5–58Google Scholar
  40. Wan Haizhu, Huang Guicai, Gao Hui, et al. (2003). Cases of AIDS co-infection with Penicilliosis marneffei. Chin J AIDS/STD, 9(2), 123Google Scholar
  41. Wu, Z., Liu, Z., Detels, R. (1995). HIV-1 infection in commercial plasma donors in China. Lancet, 346, 61–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xing, H., et al. (2004). Distribution of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 CRF01_AE strains in China and its sequence variations in the env V3–C3 region. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 38, 300–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Xing, H., Qin, G., Feng, Y. (1999). Identification and characterization of HIV-1 subtype D strain in China. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 13, 157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang, R. et al. (2002). On-going generation of multiple forms of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in the Yunnan Province of China. Aids, 16, 1401–1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yong Zhang, Lin Lu, et al. (2006). Dominance of HIV-1 subtype CRF01-AE in sexually acquired cases to a new epidemic in Yunnan Province of China. PLOS Med, 3, 0001–0013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yu, X.F., et al. (1999). Emerging HIV infections with distinct subtypes of HIV-1 infection among injection drug users from geographically separate locations in Guangxi Province, China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 22, 180–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang Beichuan, Li Xiufang, Shi Tongxin, Yang Luguang, Zhang Jingtong. (2002) The number of chinese Gay/Bi and HIV infection rate. Chin J STD/AIDS Prev Cont, 8(4), 197–199Google Scholar
  48. Zhang Linqi, Chen Zhiwei, Cao Yunzhen, et al. (2004). Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus in paid blood donors and injection drug users in china. J Virol, 78(24), 13591–13599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhejiang HIV/AIDS patients’ number increased 50%. The Youth Times, 1 December 2005Google Scholar
  50. Zheng XW. (1999). The epidemic and control of AIDS in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 20, 131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Zheng, X., et al. (2000a). Residual risk research of HIV infection after blood screening in one county in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 21, 13–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Zheng, X., et al. (2000b). The epidemiological study of HIV infection among paid blood donors in one county of China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 21, 253–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhuang Hui. (2004). Towards research on Hepatitis C. Chin J Hepatol, 12(2), 65–66Google Scholar
  54. Zhuang, K., et al. (2003). High prevalence of HIV infection among women and their children in Henan Province, China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 33, 649–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gui Xien
    • 1
  • Zhuang Ke
    • 2
  1. 1.Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan UniversityChina
  2. 2.Modern Virology Research CenterWuhan UniversityChina

Personalised recommendations