Advertisement

SARS Epidemic: SARS Outbreaks in Inner-land of China

  • Li Ruan
  • Guang Zeng

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), also known in China as Infectious Atypical Pneumonia (IAP), is the 21st century’s first infectious disease to severely threaten the public health of the human population (WHO, 2003a). A respiratory transmitted disease caused by a virus, SARS is highly infectious and is rapidly transmitted, inflicting severe complications and a high case fatality rate. The first round of the SARS pandemic led to global panic and billions of dollars economic losses, for due to lack of effective SARS drugs, governments throughout the world had to take rigid steps toward prevention and treatment of the disease.

The SARS epidemic began with the first reported case in Guangzhou, China (Wang et al., 2004), on 16 November 2002. Eight months later, the disease had spread to 26 countries in Asia, America, and Europe, resulting in a reported 8,096 cases and 774 deaths (WHO, 2004). In this global epidemic, China, with 7,429 cases and 685 deaths, accounted for 91.8% of the world’s reported cases and 88.5% of the deaths (5,327 SARS cases and 349 deaths were reported in 24 provinces in the inner-land of China – mostly in Beijing and Guangzhou, which, with a combined 4,033 cases, accounted for 75.7% of the total number in the inner-land of China; Hong Kong had 1,755 cases, 299 deaths; Taiwan: 346 cases, 37 deaths; Macao: 1 case, 0 deaths) (He et al., 2003; Peng et al., 2003; Yang et al., 2003; Leadership Group of SARS Prevention and Control in Beijing, 2003; Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003).

Keywords

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Guangdong Province Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Patient Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Che XY, Qiu LW, Pan YX, Wen K, Hao W, Zhang LY, Wang YD, Liao ZY, Hua X, Cheng VC, Yuen KY. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay for detection of nucleocapsid antigen in sera from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Clin Microbiol, 42:2629–2635, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Document: Primary analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in China, 2003Google Scholar
  3. Chinese SARS Molecular Epidemiology Consortium. Molecular evolution of SARS coronavirus during the course of the SARS epidemic in China. Science, 303:1666–1669, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt HR, Becker S, Rabenau H, Panning M, Kolesnikova L, Fouchier RA, Berger A, Burguière AM, Cinatl J, Eickmann M, Escriou N, Grywna K, Kramme S, Manuguerra JC, Müller S, Rickerts V, Stürmer M, Vieth S, Klenk HD, Osterhaus AD, Schmitz H, Doerr HW. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med, 348:1967–1976, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Government of Xuan Wu Qu, Beijing. Affiche: Isolation and Control of Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, April 23, 2004Google Scholar
  6. He JF, Pen GW, Zheng HZ, Luo HM, Liang WJ, Li LH, Guo RN, Deng ZH. An epidemiological study on the index cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome occurred in different cities among Guangdong province. Chin J Epidemiol, 24(5):347–349, 2003Google Scholar
  7. Hong T, Wang JW, Sun YL, Duan SM, Chen LB, Qu JG, Ni AP, Liang GD, Ren LL, Yang RQ, Guo L, Zhou WM, Chen J, Li DX, Xu WB, Xu H, Guo YJ, Dai SL, Bi SL, Dong XP, Ruan L. Chlamydia-like and coronavirus-like agents found in dead cases of atypical pneumonia by electron microscopy. Natl Med J China, 83(8):632–636, 2003Google Scholar
  8. Kan B, Wang M, Jing H, Xu H, Jiang X, Yan M, Liang W, Zheng H, Wan K, Liu Q, Cui B, Xu Y, Zhang E, Wang H, Ye J, Li G, Li M, Cui Z, Qi X, Chen K, Du L, Gao K, Zhao YT, Zou XZ, Feng YJ, Gao YF, Hai R, Yu D, Guan Y, Xu J. Molecular evolution analysis and geographic investigation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in palm civets at an animal market and on farms. J Virol, 79(18):11892–11900, 2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lau SK, Che XY, Woo PC, Wong BH, Cheng VC, Woo GK, Hung IF, Poon RW, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Yuen KY. SARS coronavirus detection methods. Emerg Infect Dis, 11(7):1108–1111, 2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Leadership Group of SARS Prevention and Control in Beijing. Epidemiological features of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Beijing. Chin J Epidemiol, 24(12):1096–1099, 2003Google Scholar
  11. Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, Smith C, Epstein JH, Wang H, Crameri G, Hu Z, Zhang H, Zhang J, McEachern J, Field H, Daszak P, Eaton BT, Zhang S, Wang LF. Bats Are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses, Sciencexpress (www.sciencexpress.org), Page1–8/10.1126/. science. 1118391, 29 September, 2005
  12. Li T, Xie J, He Y, Fan H, Baril L, Qiu Z, Han Y, Xu W, Zhang W, You H, Zuo Y, Fang Q, Yu J, Chen Z, Zhang L. Long-term persistence of robust antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses in recovered patients infected with SARS coronavirus. PLoS ONE (www.plosone.org), 1:e24, 2006
  13. Liang G, Chen Q, Xu J, Liu Y, Lim W, Peiris JS, Anderson LJ, Ruan L, Li H, Kan B, Di B, Cheng P, Chan KH, Erdman DD, Gu S, Yan X, Liang W, Zhou D, Haynes L, Duan S, Zhang X, Zheng H, Gao Y, Tong S, Li D, Fang L, Qin P, Xu W; SARS Diagnosis Working Group. Laboratory diagnosis of four recent sporadic cases of community acquired SARS-CoV infection in Guangdong Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis, 10:1774–1781, 2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China. News release: Breaking off of no SARS case report by Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China. 1 June 2004Google Scholar
  15. Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China. Consensus of the management of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (version 2004), 2005Google Scholar
  16. National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. Document: Decision for establishing the joined scientists group for tackling key problem of etiology of causative-unclear pneumonia recently occurring in Gongdong Province. 12 February 2003aGoogle Scholar
  17. National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. Document: National program proposal for tackling key problem of causative-unclear pneumonia recently occurring in Gongdong Province. 25 February 2003bGoogle Scholar
  18. Peng GW, He JF, Lin JY, Zhou DH, Yu DW, Liang WJ, Li LH, Guo RN, Luo HM, Xu RH. Epidemiological study on severe acute respiratory syndrome in Guangdong province. Chin J Epidemiol, 24(5):350–352, 2003Google Scholar
  19. People’s Republic of China. State Department Order No. 376: Regulations on Preparedness for and Response to Emergent Public Health Hazards, http://www.gov.cn/zwg/2005–05/content_145.htm, May 5, 2003
  20. People’s Republic of China. Chairman Order No. 17: Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, http://www.gov.cn/ziliao/flfg/2005–08/05/conter_20946.htm, Aug 28, 2004
  21. Rota PA, Oberste MS, Monroe SS, Nix WA, Campagnoli R, Icenogle JP, Peñaranda S, Bankamp B, Maher K, Chen M-H, Tong S, Tamin A, Lowe L, Frace M, DeRisi JL, Chen Q, Wang D, Erdman DD, Peret TC, Burns C, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Sanchez A, Liffick S, Holloway B, Limor J, McCaustland K, Olsen-Rassmussen M, Fouchier R, Günther S, Osterhaus AD, Drosten C, Pallansch MA, Anderson LJ, Bellini WJ. Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science, 300:1394–1399, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Song HD, Tu CC, Zhang GW, Wang SY, Zheng K, Lei LC, Chen QX, Gao YW, Zhou HQ, Xiang H, Zheng HJ, Chern SW, Cheng F, Pan CM, Xuan H, Chen SJ, Luo HM, Zhou DH, Liu YF, He JF, Qin PZ, Li LH, Ren YQ, Liang WJ, Yu YD, Anderson L, Wang M, Xu RH, Wu XW, Zheng HY, Chen JD, Liang G, Gao Y, Liao M, Fang L, Jiang LY, Li H, Chen F, Di B, He LJ, Lin JY, Tong S, Kong X, Du L, Hao P, Tang H, Bernini A, Yu XJ, Spiga O, Guo ZM, Pan HY, He WZ, Manuguerra JC, Fontanet A, Danchin A, Niccolai N, Li YX, Wu CI, Zhao GP. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102(7):2430–2435, 2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang L. Reflections on SARS outbreak and recent works on prevention and treatment of SARS. Natl Med J China, 83(20): 1753–1756, 2003Google Scholar
  24. Wang DM, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Zhang YM, Luo HM, Yu HJ. Analysis of the first clinical-diagnosed SARS cases in 24 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China. Chin J Epidemiol, 25(1):29–30, 2004Google Scholar
  25. Jiang-Tao Lin, Jian-San Zhang, Nan Su, Jian-Guo Xu, Nan Wang, Jiang-Ting Chen, Xin Chen, Yu-Xuan Liu, Hong Gao, Yu-Ping Jia, Yan Liu, Rui-Hua Sun, Xu Wang, Dong-Zheng Yu, Rong Hai, Qiang Gao, Ye Ning, Hong-Xia Wang, Ma-Chao Li, Biao Kan, Guan-Mu Dong, Qi An, Ying-Qun Wang, Jun Han, Chuan Qin, Wei-Dong Yin and Xiao-Ping Dong. Safety and immunogenicity from a Phase I trial of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus vaccine. Antiviral Therapy 12:1107–1113, 2007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. WHO. Update 1 – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). 16 March, 2003aGoogle Scholar
  27. WHO. Update 31 – Coronavirus Never Before Seen in Humans is the Cause of SARS, Unprecedented Collaboration Identifies New Pathogen in Record Time. 16 April, 2003bGoogle Scholar
  28. WHO. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Singapore. 10 September, 2003cGoogle Scholar
  29. WHO. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Taiwan, China. 17 December, 2003dGoogle Scholar
  30. WHO. Summary of Probable SARS Cases with Onset of Illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003., 21 April, 2004Google Scholar
  31. Yang W, Wang HZ, Zhang J, Yu HJ, Luo HM, Ni DX, Huang YY, Wang MW, Yan JY, Li LM. Primary analysis of infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome and its control measures. Chin J Epidemiol, 24(6):432–433, 2003Google Scholar
  32. Yu H, Jing H, Chen Z, Zheng H, Zhu X, Wang H, Wang S, Liu L, Zu R, Luo L, Xiang N, Liu H, Liu X, Shu Y, Lee SS, Chuang SK, Wang Y, Xu J, Yang W; Streptococcus Suis Study Groups. Human Streptococcus suis outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerg Infect Dis, 12(6):914–920, 2006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhu QY, Qin ED, Wang CE, Yu M, Si BY, Fan BC, Chang GH, Peng WM, Yang BA, Jiang T, Li YC, Deng YQ, Liu H, Gan YH. Isolation and identification of a novel coronavirus from patients with SARS. China Biotechnol, 23(4):106–112, 2003Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Ruan
    • 1
  • Guang Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biotech Center for Viral Disease EmergencyNational Institute for Viral Disease Control and PreventionChina
  2. 2.Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionChina

Personalised recommendations