Taurine 7 pp 481-489 | Cite as

Inhibition of Apoptosis by Taurine in Macrophages Treated with Sodium Nitroprusside

  • So Young Kim
  • Taesun Park
  • Ha Won Kim
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 643)


Nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptotic cell death in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of taurine on NO-induced apoptosis, a cell was exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, in the absence and presence of taurine. Taurine treatment prevented SNP-mediated cellular apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. The exposure of the cell to taurine prior to SNP treatment inhibited DNA fragmentation more than addition of taurine to the medium after SNP treatment. Agarose gel electrophoresis data revealed that taurine reduced the intensity of SNP-induced DNA laddering. The taurine-mediated reduction in the number of apoptotic cells was also observed using the Hoechst 33258 stain. These results support the idea that taurine has the potential to function as an inhibitory modulator of NO-mediated cell injury.


Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Sodium Nitroprusside Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Murine Macrophage Cell Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alvarez S, Evelson PA (2007) Nitric oxide and oxygen metabolism in inflammatory conditions: sepsis and exposition to polluted ambients. Front Biosci 12:964–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barua M, Liu Y, Quinn MR (2001) Taurine chloramine inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-alpha gene expression in activated alveolar macrophages: decreased NF-kappaB activation and IkappaB kinase activity. J Immunol 167:2275–2281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brune B, Lapetina EG (1990) Properties of a novel nitric oxide-stimulated ADP-ribosyltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys 279:286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dawson R Jr (2003) Taurine in aging and models of neurodegeneration. Adv Exp Med Biol 526:537–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Felley-Bosco E (1998) Role of nitric oxide in genotoxicity:implication for carcinogenesis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 17:25–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giri SN, Gurujeyalakshmi G, Wang Y (2000) Suppression of bleomycin-induced increased production of nitric oxide and NF-kB activation by treatment with taurine and niacin. Adv Exp Med Biol 483:545–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Higuchi Y (2003) Chromosomal DNA fragmentation in apoptosis and necrosis induced by oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol 66:1527–1535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huxtable RJ (1992) Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 72:101–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ju WK, Chung IW, Kim KY, Gwon JS, Lee MY, Oh SJ, Chun MH (2001) Sodium nitroprusside selectively induces apoptotic cell death in the outer retina of the rat. Neuroreport 12:4075–4079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim C, Choi HS, Kim JW (2006) Taurine chloramine inhibits the production of nitric oxide and superoxide anion by modulating specific mitogen-activated protein kinases. Adv Exp Med Biol 583:493–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kramer JH, Chovan JP, Schaffer SW (1981). Effect of taurine on calcium paradox and ischemic heart failure. Am J Physiol 240:H238–H246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuhn K, Lotz M (2003) Mechanisms of sodium nitroprusside-induced death in human chondrocytes. Rheumatol Int 23:241–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lau HK (2003) Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide donors in smooth muscle cells is dependent on phenotype, and mainly due to apoptosis. Atherosclerosis 166:223–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marquez LA, Dunford HB (1994) Chlorination of taurine by myeloperoxidase. Kinetic evidence for an enzyme-bound intermediate. J Biol Chem 269:7950–7956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Park E, Schuller-Levis G, Quinn MR (1995) Taurine chloramine inhibits production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha in activated RAW 264.7 cells by mechanisms that involve transcriptional and translational events. J Immunol 154:4778–4784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Solomonson LP, Flam BR, Pendleton LC, Goodwin BL, Eichler DC (2003) The caveolar nitric oxide synthase/arginine regeneration system for NO production in endothelial cells. J Exp Biol 206(Pt 12):2083–2087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stamler JS, Simon DI, Osborne JA, Mullins ME, Jaraki O, Michel T, Singel DJ, Loscalzo J (1992a) S-nitrosylation of proteins with nitric oxide:synthesis and characterization of biologically active compounds. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:444–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stamler JS, Singel DJ, Loscalzo J (1992b) Biochemistry of nitric oxide and its redox-activated forms. Science 258:1898–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Weinberg JB, Granger DL, Pisetsky DS, Seldin MF, Misukonis MA, Mason SN, Pippen AM, Ruiz P, Wood ER, Gilkeson GS (1994) The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of spontaneous murine autoimmune disease:increased nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase expression in MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and reduction of spontaneous glomerulonephritis and arthritis by orally administered NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. J Exp Med 179:651–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weiss SJ, Klein R, Slivka A, Wei M (1982) Chlorination of taurine by human neutrophils. Evidence for hypochlorous acid generation. J Clin Invest 70:598–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu QD, Wang JH, Fennessy F, Redmond HP, Bouchier-Hayes D (1999) Taurine prevents high-glucose-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Am J Physiol 277(6 Pt 1):C1229–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. You JS, Chang KJ (1998) Taurine protects the liver against lipid peroxidation and membrane disintegration during rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 442:105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Yu X, Chen K, Wei N, Zhang Q, Liu J, Mi M (2007) Dietary taurine reduces retinal damage produced by photochemical stress via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats. Br J Nutr 98:711–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • So Young Kim
    • 1
  • Taesun Park
  • Ha Won Kim
  1. 1.College of MedicineEwha Women’s UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations