Socioeconomic Status: Risks and Resilience

  • Lara M. Stepleman
  • Dustin E. Wright
  • Kathryn A. Bottonari


In the discussion of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and mental illness, it is essential to consider the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) as one of the most influential variables in health morbidity and mortality research (Angell, 1993). SES has been conceptualized as “a broad concept that refers to the placement of persons, families, households, and census tracts or other aggregates with respect to the capacity to consume goods that are valued in society” (Miech & Hauser, 2001). Given that the risk for psychiatric disorders is about two-fold for individuals in the lowest SES groups compared to those in higher SES groups (Holzer et al., 1986), it is acutely troublesome that Hispanics and African Americans experience poverty at rates two to three times that of White, non-Hispanics (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Lee, 2006). Research indicates that the inverse linear relationship between SES and mental health spans the entire economic spectrum (Adler & Snibbe, 2003;...


Mental Health Mental Health Care Sexual Minority Mental Health Outcome Subjective Social Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lara M. Stepleman
    • 1
  • Dustin E. Wright
  • Kathryn A. Bottonari
  1. 1.Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta

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