Advertisement

Religion, Spirituality, and Nonheterosexual-Identified Minority Women

  • J.D. Sana Loue
Chapter

Religion and spirituality are important dimensions of human existence. It has been asserted that it is spirituality that makes us human (Helminiak, 1996). Both religious practice and spirituality have been found to be associated with psychological well-being ((Bergin, Masters, & Richards, 1987; George, Larson, Koenig, & McCullough, 2000; Levin, Markides, & Ray, 1996). Although the concepts of religiosity and spirituality have often been used interchangeably in the context of research (O’Neill & Kenny, 1998), it is important to distinguish between the two. When distinctions have been made, there has been tremendous variability across studies with respect to the definitions that have been used. Studies have conceived of spirituality as a focus on God or other power that guides the universe, faith in mystical or transcendental experiences, and/or adherence to certain moral values and belief about relationships with people and a higher power (Mathew, Georgi, Wilson, & Mathew, 1996; Warfield & Goldstein, 1996)

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Sexual Minority Sexual Identity Minority Woman Premature Ejaculation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, D. J. & Oleson, T. (1999). Shame and internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 37, 33–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allport, C. W. & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Althaus-Reid, M. (2006a). “Let them talk …!” Doing liberation theology from Latin American closets. In M. Althaus-Reid (Ed.), Liberation theology and sexuality (pp. 5–17). Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  4. Althaus-Reid, M. (Ed). (2006b). Liberation theology and sexuality. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, V. (1998). Deadly silence: Reflections on homosexuality and human rights. In S. M. Olyan & M. C. Nussbaum (Eds.), Sexual orientation & human rights in American religious discourse (pp. 185–200). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin, G. R. (2002). Queering the priestly woman. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 7 (1), 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerjee, N. (2007). For some black pastors, accepting gay members means losing others. New York Times, March 27, at Sec. A, p. 12, col. 1.Google Scholar
  9. Bardella, C. (2001). Queer spirituality. Social Compass, 48 (1), 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Begelman, D. A. (1975). Ethical and legal issues of behavior modification. In M. Hersen, R. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.) Progress in behavior modification (pp. 159–189). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Benner, D. G. (1989). Toward a psychology of spirituality: Implications for personality and psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy and Christianity, 8 (1), 19–30.Google Scholar
  12. Bergin, A. E., Masters, K. S., & Richards, P. S. (1987). Religiousness and mental health reconsidered: A study of intrinsically religious sample. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boswell, J. (1980). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bosworth, H. B. (2006). The importance of spirituality/religion and health-related quality of life among individuals with HIV/AIDS [editorial]. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, S3–S4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford dictionary of world religions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bradford, J., Ryan, C., & Rothblum, E. D. (1994). National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for mental health care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 228–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, S. E. (2006). Muslim attitudes to homosexuality. In T. Brown (Ed.), Other voices, other worlds: The global church speaks out on homosexuality (pp. 114–128). New York: Church Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Brumbaugh, S. M. (2007). The use of the communion ritual for the process of identity congruence among lesbian, gay and bisexual communities. Dissertation, Graduate College of Bowling Green State University.Google Scholar
  19. Canda, E. R. (1988). Spirituality, religious diversity, and social work practice. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 69(4), 238–247.Google Scholar
  20. Carey, J. S. (1992). D. S. Bailey and “The name forbidden among Christians”. In W. R. Dynes & S. Donaldson (Eds.), Homosexuality and religion and philosophy (pp. 94–173). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Catechism of the Catholic Church. (1995). New York: Image/Doubleday.Google Scholar
  22. Cates, J. A. (2007). Identity in crisis: Spirituality and homosexuality in adolescence. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24, 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clapp, S. (2007). Silent and undecided friends: Motivating greater LGBT rights advocacy among clergy and congregations. Fort Wayne, Indiana: LifeQuest.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, J. M., Brown, J. C., & Hochstein, L. M. (1990). Institutional religion and gay/lesbian oppression. In F. W. Bozett & M. B. Sussman (Eds.), Homosexuality and family relations (pp. 265–284). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  25. Comstock, G. D. (2001). A whosoever church: Welcoming lesbians and gays into African American congregations. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  26. Corless, R. (2004). Towards a queer dharmology of sex. Culture and Religion, 5 (2), 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cotton, S., Puchalski, C. M., Sherman, S. N., Mrus, J. M., Peterman, A. H., Feinberg, J., et al. (2006). Spirituality and religion in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, S5–S13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Daly, M. (1985). The church and the second sex: With the feminist postchristian introduction and new archaic afterwords by the author. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon.Google Scholar
  29. Davidson, M. G. (2000). Religion and spirituality. In R. M. Perez, K. A. DeBord, & K. J. Bieschke (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients (pp. 409–433). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Djupe, P. A., Olson, L. R., & Gilbert, C. P. (2006). Whether to adopt statements on homosexuality in two denominations: A research note. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 45 (4), 609–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dombeck, M. & Karl, J. (1987). Spiritual issues in mental health care. Journal of Religion and Health, 26 (3), 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drescher, J. (2001). I’m your handyman: A history of reparative therapies. In A. Shidlo, M. Schroeder, & J. Drescher (Eds.), Sexual conversion therapy: Ethical, clinical and research perspectives (pp. 5–24). Binghamton, New York: Haworth Medical Press.Google Scholar
  33. Dyson, M. (1996). Race rules: Negotiating the color line. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  34. Eisler, R. (1995). Sacred pleasure: Sex, myth, and the politics of the body. San Francisco, California: Harper.Google Scholar
  35. Ellison, M. M. (1993). Homosexuality and Protestantism. In A. Swinder (Ed.), Homosexuality and world religions (pp. 149–180). Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Trinity.Google Scholar
  36. Englund, M. E. (1991). The Bible and homosexuality. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Chi Rho Press.Google Scholar
  37. Exodus International. (1999). Exodus International [online]. Available at http://www.messiah.edu/hpages/facstaff/chase/h/exodus/
  38. Faith Temple. (n.d.). Faith Temple: About us. Last accessed June 3, 2008; Available at http://faithtempledc.com/index.html
  39. Fallot, R. D. (1998). Spiritual and religious dimensions of mental illness recovery narratives. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 80, 35–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fitzpatrick, A. L., Standish, L. J., Berger, J., Kim, J. C., Calabrese, C., & Polissar, N. (2007). Survival in HIV-1-positive patients practicing psychological or spiritual activities for one year. Alternative Therapies, 13 (5), 18–24.Google Scholar
  41. Ford, J. G. (2001). Healing homosexuals: A psychologist’s journey through the ex-gay movement and the pseudo-science of reparative therapy. In A. Shidlo, M. Schroeder, & J. Drescher (Eds.), Sexual conversion therapy: Ethical, clinical and research perspectives (pp. 69–86). Binghamton, New York: Haworth Medical Press.Google Scholar
  42. Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  43. Frame, M. W. (2003). Integrating religion and spirituality into counseling: A comprehensive approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  44. Fullilove, M. T. & Fullilove, R. E. I. (1999). Stigma as an obstacle to AIDS action. American Behavioral Scientist, 42, 1117–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Galanter, M. (2006). Spirituality and addiction: A research and clinical perspective. American Journal on the Addictions, 15, 286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garanzini, M. J. (1989). Psychodynamic theory and pastoral theology: An integrated model. In R. Hasbany (Ed.), Homosexuality and religion (pp. 175–194). Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  47. George, L. K., Larson, D., Koenig, H., & McCullough, M. (2000). Spirituality and health: What we know and what we need to know. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19,102–116.Google Scholar
  48. Goizueta, R. S. (2005). Liberation theology. In J. Bowden (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Christianity (pp. 703–706). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Goodstein, L. (2006). Episcopalians shaken by division in church. The New York Times, July 2, 10 (sec. 1, col. 1).Google Scholar
  50. Griffin, H. L. (2006). Their own receive them not: African American lesbians and gays in black churches. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  51. Grossman, C. L. (2006). God and gays: Churchgoers stand divided; The faithful face difficult choices. USA Today, June 13, 1D.Google Scholar
  52. Haldeman, D. C. (1994). The practice and ethics of sexual conversion therapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haldeman, D. C. (2002). Gay rights, patient rights: The implications of sexual orientation conversion therapy. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 33, 260–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hays, R. B. (1994). Awaiting the redemption of our bodies: The witness of scripture concerning homosexuality. In J. S. Siker (Ed.), Homosexuality in the church: Both sides of the debate (pp. 3–17). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  55. Heermann, M. M., Wiggins, M. I., & Ritter, P. A. (2007). Creating a space for spiritual practice: Pastoral possibilities with sexual minorities. Pastoral Psychology, 55, 711–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Helminiak, D. A. (1996). The human core of spirituality: Mind as psyche and spirit. Albany, New York: State University of New York (SUNY) Press.Google Scholar
  57. Herek, G.M (1987). Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herek, G. M. (1994). Assessing heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In D. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research and clinical applications (pp. 206–228). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Heyward, C. (1984). Our passion for justice: Images of power, sexuality, and liberation. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hill, A. C. (2001). Yes. In Ullestad, S. L., Mocko, G. P., Hill, A. C., Martin-Schramm, J., & Kolden, M. (2001). Sexuality in ministry: Dialog in dialog: Can pastors be openly gay or lesbian? Dialog, 40(1), 9–20.Google Scholar
  61. Ingersoll, R. E. (1994). Spirituality, religion, and counseling: Dimensions and relationships. Counseling and Values, 38 (2), 98–111.Google Scholar
  62. Jackson, P. A. (1995). Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 6 (3), 140–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Joseph, M. V. (1988). Religion and social work practice. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 69 (7), 443–452.Google Scholar
  64. Keysor, C. W. (1979). What you should know about homosexuality. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.Google Scholar
  65. Lease, S. H., Horne, S. G., & Noffsinger-Frazier, N. (2005). Affirming faith experiences and psychological health for Caucasian lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52 (3), 378–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lease, S. H. & Shulman, J. L. (2003). A preliminary investigation of the role of religion for family members of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual male and female individuals. Counseling and Values, 47, 195–209.Google Scholar
  67. Lee, K. G. & Busto, R. (1991). When the spirit moves us. OUT/LOOK, 14, 83–85.Google Scholar
  68. Levin, J. S., Markides, K. S., & Ray, L. A. (1996). Religious attendance and psychological well-being of Mexican-Americans: A panel analysis of three-generations data. The Gerontologist, 36, 454–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis, G. B. (2003). Black-white differences in attitudes toward homosexuality and gay rights. Public Opinion Quarterly, 67, 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lincoln, C. E. & Mamiya, L. (1990). The Black church in the African American experience. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lindgren, K. N. & Coursey, R. D. (1995). Spirituality and mental illness: A two-part study. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 18 (3), 93–111.Google Scholar
  72. Litton, E. F. (2001). Voices of courage and hope: Gay and lesbian Catholic elementary school teachers. Journal of sexuality and Gender Studies, 6 (3), 193–205.Google Scholar
  73. Love, P. G., Bock, M., Jannarone, A., & Richardson, P. (2005). Identity interaction: Exploring the spiritual experiences of lesbian and gay college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46 (2), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lukenbill, B. W. (1998). Observations on the corporate culture of gay and lesbian congregations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37 (3), 440–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lynch, B. (1996). Religious and spirituality conflicts. In D. Davies & C. Neal (Eds.), Pink therapy: A guide for counselors and therapists working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients (pp. 199–207). Buckingham, England: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Maduro, O. (2006). Once again liberating theology? Towards a Latin American liberation theological self-criticism. In M. Altehaus-Reid (Ed.), Liberation theology and sexuality (pp. 19–31). Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  77. Mahaffy, K. A. (1996). Cognitive dissonance and its resolution: A study of lesbian Christians. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 35, 392–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Martin, A. (1984). The emperor’s new clothes: Modern attempts to change sexual orientation. In T. Stein & E. Hetrick (Eds.), Innovations in psychotherapy with homosexuals (pp. 24–57). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  79. Mathew, R. J., Georgi, J., Wilson, W. H., & Mathew, V. G. (1996). A retrospective study of the concept of spirituality as understood by recovering individuals. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13, 67–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McNeill, J. J. (1994). Homosexuality: Challenging the church to grow. In J. S. Siker (Ed.), Homosexuality in the church: Both sides of the debate (pp. 49–58). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, N. (1989). In search of gay America: Women and men in a time of change. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  82. Miller, M. (2000). As a pious churchgoer, Stuart Matis prayed and worked to change his sexual orientation. He died trying. Newsweek, May 8, 38–39.Google Scholar
  83. Miller, W. R. & Bogenschutz, M. P. (2007). Spirituality and addiction. Southern Medical Journal, 100 (4), 433–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moor, P. (2001). The view from Irving Bieber’s couch: “Heads I win, tails you lose”. In A. Shidlo, M. Schroeder, & J. Drescher (Eds.), Sexual conversion therapy: Ethical, clinical and research perspectives. (pp. 25–36). Binghamton, New York: Haworth Medical Press.Google Scholar
  85. Morris, J. F. (2000). Lesbian women of color in communities: Social activities and mental health services. Paper presented at the 108th meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  86. Murray, S. O. & Roscoe, W. (Eds.). (1997). Islamic homosexualities: Culture, history, and literature. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  87. National Conference of Catholic Bishops. (1997). Always our children: A pastoral message to parents of homosexual children and suggestions for pastoral ministers. Washington, D.C.: United States Catholic Conference.Google Scholar
  88. Nelson, J. B. (1994). Sources for body theology: Homosexuality as a test case. In J. S. Siker (Ed.), Homosexuality in the church: Both sides of the debate (pp. 76–90). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  89. Nugent, R. & Gramick, J. (1989). Homosexuality: Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish issues: A fishbone tail. In R. Hasbany (Ed.), Homosexuality and religion (pp. 7–46). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  90. Olson, L. R. & Cadge, W. (2002). Talking about homosexuality: The views of mainline Protestant clergy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41 (1), 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Olson, L. R., Cadge, W., & Harrison, J. T. (2006). Religion and public opinion about same-sex marriage. Social Science Quarterly, 87 (2), 340–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. O’Brien, J. (2004). Wrestling the angel of contradiction: Queer Christian identities. In J. O’Brien (Ed.), Production of reality: Essays and readings on social interaction (pp. 450–464). Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge.Google Scholar
  93. O’Neill, D. P., & Kenny, E. K. (1998). Spirituality and chronic illness. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30 (3), 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Rourke, C. (1997). Listening for the sacred: Addressing spiritual issues in the group treatment of adults with mental illness. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 67 (2), 177–196.Google Scholar
  95. Piazza, M. S. (1994). Holy homosexuals: The truth about being gay or lesbian and Christian. Dallas, Texas: Sources of Hope.Google Scholar
  96. Ponticelli, C. M. (1999). Crafting stories of sexual identity reconstruction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62, 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ratzinger, C. J. (1986). Letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church on the pastoral care of homosexual persons. In J. S. Siker (Ed.), Homosexuality in the church: Both sides of the debate (pp. 39–47). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  98. Ritter, K. Y. & O’Neill, G. W. (1995). Moving through loss: The spiritual journey of gay men and lesbian women. In M. T. Burke & J. G. Miranti (Eds.), Counseling: The spiritual dimension (pp. 126–141). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  99. Roberts, S. K. (2001). African American church ethics. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  100. Robinson, D. T., Gibson-Beverly, G., & Schwartz, J. P. (2004). Sorority and fraternity membership and religious behaviors: Relation to gender attitudes. Sex Roles, 50, 871–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rodriguez, J. C. (2000). All God’s children (except some). Miami New Times, October 26.Google Scholar
  102. Rodriguez, E. M. & Ouellette, S. C. (2000). Gay and lesbian Christians: Homosexual and religious identity integration in the members and participants of a gay positive church. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39 (3), 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rosik, C. H., Griffith, L. K., & Cruz, Z. (2007). Homophobia and conservative religion: Toward a more nuanced understanding. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77 (1), 10–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rothblum, E. D., Balsam, K. F., & Mickey, R. H. (2004). Brothers and sisters of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals as a demographic comparison group: An innovative research methodology to examine social change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40 (3), 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rowatt, W. C. & Schmitt, D. P. (2003). Associations between religious orientation and variables of sexual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 455–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanders, C. J. (1998). Sexual orientation and human rights discourse in the African-American churches. In S. M. Olyan & M. C. Nussbaum (Eds.), Sexual orientation & human rights in American religious discourse (pp. 178–184). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Schneider, J. M. (1984). Stress, loss, and grief. Baltimore, Maryland: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  108. Schneider, J. M. (1994). Finding my way: Healing and transformation through loss and grief. Colfax, Wisconsin: Seasons Press.Google Scholar
  109. Schnoor, R. F. (2006). Being gay and Jewish: Negotiating intersecting identities. Sociology of Religion, 67 (1), 43–60.Google Scholar
  110. Schow, W. (1997). Homosexuality, Mormon doctrine, and Christianity: A father’s perspective. In G. D. Comstock & E. Kenking (Eds.), Que(e)rying religion: A critical anthology (pp. 255–264). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  111. Schuck, K. D. & Liddle, B. J. (2001). Religious conflicts experiences by lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 5 (2), 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Scott, J. (1998). Changing attitudes towards sexual morality: A cross-national comparison. Sociology, 32 (4), 815–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sheridan, M. & Bullis, R. (1991). Practitioners’ views of religion and spirituality: A qualitative study. Spirituality and Social Work, 2, 2–10.Google Scholar
  114. Sherkat, D. E. (2002). Sexuality and religious commitment in the United States: An empirical examination. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41 (2), 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shidlo, A. (1994). Internalized homophobia: Conceptual and empirical issues in measurement. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research and clinical application (pp. 176–205). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  116. Singer, B. L. & Deschamps, D. (1994). Gay and lesbian stats: A pocket guide of facts and figures. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, H. (1991). The world’s religions: Our great wisdom traditions. San Francisco, California: HarperSanFrancisco.Google Scholar
  118. Spitzer, R. L. (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200 participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 403–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Starhawk. (1982). Dreaming the dark: Magic, sex, and politics. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  120. Stein, T. S. (1996). A critique of approaches to changing sexual orientation. In R. P. Cabaj & T. S. Stein (Eds.), Textbook of homosexuality and mental health (pp. 525–537). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  121. Szymanski, D. M., Chung, Y. B., & Balsam, K. F. (2001). Psychosocial correlates of internalized homophobia in lesbians. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 27–49.Google Scholar
  122. Throckmorton, W. (1998). Attempts to modify sexual orientation: A review of outcome literature and ethical issues. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 283–304.Google Scholar
  123. Thumma, S. (1991). Negotiating a religious identity: The case of the gay evangelical. Sociological Analysis, 52 (4), 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Titone, A. (1991). Spirituality and psychotherapy in social work practice. Spirituality and Social Work Communicator, 2 (1), 7–9.Google Scholar
  125. Tozer, E. E. & Hayes, J. A. (2004). Why do individuals seek conversion therapy? The Counseling Psychologist, 32, 716–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ullestad, S. L., Mocko, G. P., Hill, A. C., Martin-Schramm, J., & Kolden, M. (2001). Sexuality in ministry. Dialog, 40 (1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Umansky, E. M. (1997). Jewish attitudes towards homosexuality: A review of contemporary sources. In G. D. Comstock & E. Kenking (Eds.), Que(e)rying religion: A critical anthology (pp. 181–187). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  128. United Methodist Church. (2004). Human sexuality. Available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1728
  129. Unity Fellowship Church Los Angeles. (2004). Who we are: The Unity Fellowship Church movement. Last accessed June 3, 2008; Available at http://www.ufc-usa.org/history.htm
  130. Unity Fellowship Church in Christ NYC. (n.d.). About us. Last accessed June 3, 2008; Available at http://www.ufcnyc.org/
  131. Warfield, R. D., & Goldstein, M. B. (1996). Spirituality: The key to recovery from alcoholism. Counseling and Values, 40, 196–205.Google Scholar
  132. Warner, R. S. (2002). The Metropolitan Community churches and the gay agenda: The power of Pentecostalism and essentialism. In C. L. Williams & A. Stein (Eds.), Sexuality and gender (pp. 282–307). Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  133. Westerfelhaus, R. (1998). A significant shift: A pentadic analysis of the two rhetorics of the post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Church regarding homosexuality. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 3 (4), 269–294.Google Scholar
  134. Whitehead, E. E. & Whitehead, J. D. (1986). Seasons of strength: New visions of adult Christian maturing. New York: Image Doubleday.Google Scholar
  135. Wilkinson, W. W. (2004). Religiosity, authoritarianism, and homophobia: A multidimensional approach. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yakushko, O. (2005). Influence of social support, existential well-being, and stress over sexual orientation on self-esteem of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 27 (1), 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yarhouse M. (1998). When clients seek treatment for same-sex attraction: Ethical issues in the “right to choose” debate. Psychotherapy, 35, 234–239.Google Scholar
  138. Yarhouse, M. A. & Throckmorton, W. (2002). Ethical issues in attempts to ban reorientation therapies. Psychotherapy: Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 39, 66–75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations