Advertisement

“No One Place to Call Home”: Workplace and Community Safety Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women of Color

  • Tracy Jones
  • Earl Pike
Chapter

Research-based or narrative-informed discussion of the lives of minority women of nonheterosexual sexual orientation is severely limited by several significant realities. First, much of the research on topics germane to this chapter—work and vocational life and workplace inclusion and nondiscrimination; questions of home, residence, and travel or mobility as they relate to personal safety; rates and impacts of hate crimes and violence; and others—is based on sampling that includes, on the one hand, both nonheterosexual men and women and on the other hand, both European American and “minority” lesbian and bisexual women. Since race and gender, apart from sexual orientation, are significant factors in these and related discussions, general surveys of all lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons or all lesbian/bisexual women may not reveal much about the particular experiences of those within larger samples who are not women or not European American.

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Hate Crime Bisexual Woman Sexual Prejudice Sexual Minority Youth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. The Advocate. November 15, 2002. Last accessed May, 2008; Available at http://advocate.com/news_detail.asp?id=13720 .
  2. American Psychological Association. (2002). Testimony Before the U. S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions for the Hearing on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), February 27. Last accessed May, 2008; Available at http://www.apa.org/ppo/issues/penda202.html.
  3. Badgett, M. V. L. (1995). The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48, 726–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the lifespan: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 73, 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belz, J. R. (1993). Sexual orientation as a factor in career development. The Career Development Quarterly, 41, 197–200.Google Scholar
  6. Boatwright, K. J., Gilbert, M. S., Taylor, L., & Ketzenberger, K. (1996). Impact of identity development on career trajectory: Listening to the voices of lesbian women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 210–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowleg, L., Huang, J., Brooks, K., Black, A., & Burkholder, G. (2003). Triple jeopardy and beyond: Multiple minority stress and resilience among Black lesbians. In K. E. Balsam (Ed.), Trauma, stress, and resilience among sexual minority women (pp. 87–108). Binghamton, New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, C. S. (1989). Issues of identity development among Asian-American lesbians and gay men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 16–20.Google Scholar
  9. Cohler, B. J., & Hammack, P. L. (2007). The psychological world of the gay teenager: Social change, narrative, and ‘normality.’ Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Croom, G. L. (2000). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of color: A challenge to representative sampling in empirical research. In B. Greene & C. L. Croom (Eds.), Education, research, and practice in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Croteau, J. M., & von Destinon, M. (1994). A national survey of job search experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual student affairs professionals. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 40–45.Google Scholar
  13. Dand, A., & Vianney, C. (2007). Living in the margins: A national survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. Washington, D.C.: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute. Last accessed July 3, 2008; Available at http://www.theTaskForce.org/reports_and_research/api_study
  14. DuBois, W. E. B. (1987). Strivings of the Negro people. Atlantic Monthly, 80, 194–198.Google Scholar
  15. Espín, O. M. (1987) Issues of identity in the psychology of Latina lesbians. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Ed.), Lesbian psychologies: Explorations and challenges (pp. 35–44). Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gallo, M. M. (2006). Different daughters: The history of the Daughters of Bilitis and the rise of the lesbian rights movement. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Garnets, L. D., & Kimmel, D. C. (2003). Psychological dimensions of sexual prejudice, discrimination, and violence. In L. D. Garnets & D. C. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual experiences (pp. 149–156). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Greene, B. (1994). Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greene, B. (1995). Lesbian women of color: Triple jeopardy. In B. Greene (Ed.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 389–427). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  20. Greene, B. (1998). Family, ethnic identity, and sexual orientation: African-American lesbians and gay men. In C. J. Patterson & A. R. D’Augelli (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities in families: Psychological perspectives (pp. 40–52). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Greene, B. (2000a). African American lesbian and bisexual women in feminist-psychodynamic psychotherapies: Surviving and thriving between a rock and a hard place. In L. C. Jackson & B. Greene (Eds.), Psychotherapy with African American women: Innovations in psychodynamic perspective and practice (pp. 82–125). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Greene, B. (2000b). Beyond heterosexism and across the cultural divide: Developing an inclusive lesbian, gay, and bisexual psychology. In B. Greene & G. L. Croom (Eds.), Education, research, and practice in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology (pp. 1–45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Greene, B. A. (2001). African American lesbians and bisexual women. Last revised December 25, 2007; Last accessed July 3, 2008; Available at http://academic.udayton.edu/ race/05intersection/sexual01.htm.
  24. Greene, B. A. (2002). Internalized racism among African Americans: The connections and considerations for African American lesbians and bisexual women. Rutgers Law Review, 54, 931–957.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, W. (2007). Out of the corporate closet: How African American gays and lesbians can gain ground in the workplace. Black Enterprise. Last accessed June, 2008, Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1365/is_10_37?ai_nl19053032/print
  26. Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999) Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 945–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hetherington, C. (1991). Life planning and career counseling with gay and lesbian students. In N. J. Evans & V. A. Wall (Eds.), Beyond tolerance: Gays, lesbians, and bisexuals on campus (pp. 131–145). Alexandria, VA: American College Personnel Association.Google Scholar
  28. Hildago, H. (1984) The Puerto Rican lesbian in the United States. In T. Darty & S. Potter (Eds.), Women identified women (pp. 105–150). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  29. hooks, b. (1995). Killing rage: Ending racism. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  30. Hughes, T. L., Matthews, A. K., Razzano, L, & Aranda, F. (2003). Psychological distress in African American lesbian and heterosexual women. In T. L. Hughes, C. Smith, & A. Dan (Eds.), Mental health issues for sexual minority women: Redefining women’s mental health (pp. 51–68). Binghamton, New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  31. Kennamer, J. D., Honnold, J., Bradford, J., & Hendricks, M. (2000). Differences in disclosure of sexuality among African American and White gay/bisexual men: Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 519–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Krieger, N., & Sidney, S. (1997) Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination: A study of Black and White women and men in the CARDIA cohort. Journal of Health Services, 27(1), 156–176.Google Scholar
  33. Leonard, A. A. (2003). The gay rights workplace revolution. Human Rights, 30, 14.Google Scholar
  34. Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Rhue, S. (1993). The impact of perceived discrimination on the intimate relationships of Black lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 25(40), 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mays, V. M., Yancey, A. K., Cochran, S. D., Weber, M., & Fielding, J. E. (2002). Heterogeneity of health disparities among African American, Hispanic, and Asian American women: Unrecognized influences of sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 632–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mission America. (2008). Hate crime laws that include sexual orientation are compassionate and kind, right?” Last accessed July 3, 2008; Available at http://www.missionamerica.com/homosexual.php?articlenum=57
  37. Nauta, M. M., Saucier, A. M., & Woodard, L. E. (2001). Interpersonal influences on students’ academic and career decisions: The impact of sexual orientation. The Career Development Quarterly, 49, 352–362.Google Scholar
  38. Patterson, C. (1997). Testimony on behalf of the American Psychological Association, on “Lesbian Health Research,” before the Committee on Lesbian Health Research Priorities, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, October 6. Last accessed June, 2008; Available at http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/hltrsch.html. Page.3.
  39. Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: Antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1244–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rust, P. C. (2003). Finding a sexual identity and community: Therapeutic implications and cultural assumptions in scientific models of coming out. In L. D. Garnets & D. C. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual experiences. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Schaltz, B., & O’Hanlan, K. (1994). Anti-gay discrimination in medicine: Results of a national survey of lesbian, gay, and bisexual physicians. San Francisco, CA: American Association of Physicians for Human Rights.Google Scholar
  42. Schmidt, C. K., & Nilsson, J. E. (2006). The effects of simultaneous developmental processes: Factors related to the career development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The Career Development Quarterly, 55, 22–37.Google Scholar
  43. Shanker, T. (2008). ‘Don’t ask, don’t tell’ hits women much more. New York Times,June 23.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, B. (1998). The truth that never hurts: Writings on race, gender, and freedom. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, D. A., & Gates, G. J. (2001). Gay and lesbian families in the United States: Same sex unmarried partner households. Last updated August 22; Last accessed June, 2008; Available at http://www.hrc.org
  46. The Urban Institute. (2008). Gay and Lesbian Demographics. Last accessed June, 2008; Available at http://www.urban.org/toolkit/issues/gayresearchfocus.cfm?renderforprint=1
  47. Trujillo, C. M. (1997) Sexual identity and the discontents of difference. In B. Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 266–278). Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  48. Van Hoye, G., & Lievens, F. (2003). The effects of sexual orientation on hirability ratings: An experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(1), 18–19.Google Scholar
  49. Yoshino, K. (2007). Gay law for beginners. The Advocate, May 8, (984), pp. 28–32.Google Scholar

Suggested Readings

  1. Beam, J. (1986). In the life. Boston: Alyson.Google Scholar
  2. Hemphill, E. (Ed.). (1991). Brother to brother. Boston: Alyson.Google Scholar
  3. Lim-Hing, S. (Ed.). (1993). The very inside: An anthology of Asian and Pacific Islander lesbian and bisexual women. Toronto: Sister Vision.Google Scholar
  4. Lorde, A. (1984). Sister/outsider. Freedom, CA: Crossing.Google Scholar
  5. Mason-John, V. (1995). Talking black: Lesbians of African and Asian descent speak out. New York: Cassell.Google Scholar
  6. Moraga, C. (1983). Loving in the wars years: Lo que nunca pasó por sus labios. Boston: South End.Google Scholar
  7. Ratti, R. (Ed.). (1993). A lotus of another color: The unfolding of the South Asian gay and lesbian experience. Boston: Alyson.Google Scholar
  8. Roscoe, W. (Ed.). (1988). Living in the spirit: A gay American Indian anthology. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  9. Saikaku, I. (1990). The great mirror of male love. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Silvera, M. (Ed.). (1991). Piece of my heart: A lesbian of color anthology. Toronto: Sister Vision.Google Scholar
  11. Trujillo, C. (Ed.). (1991). Chicana lesbians: The girls our mothers warned us about. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy Jones
    • 1
  • Earl Pike
    • 1
  1. 1.AIDS Taskforce of Greater ClevelandClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations