Advertisement

Lesbian Families

  • Nancy Mendez
Chapter

Prior to the early 1800s, love was not considered to be a critical aspect of marriage in the United States. In the American colonies, marriage among White European immigrants was regarded as a social obligation and as an economic necessity (Malone & Cleary, 2002). By the 1920s, the United States experienced a movement toward marriage formed on the basis of love as opposed to an exchange in property. Concurrent with this shift toward marriages premised on love, the United States evolved from a primarily agricultural economy to an industrial economy, with the movement of population from farms and rural communities to large cities in search of industrial jobs. In 1890, only 28% of the population lived in cities, but by 1930 it was 56%. In fact, by 1920, for the first time in US history, more people lived in cities than farms. The urbanization of American society led to the disappearance of the extended family. By 1947 a “nuclear family” became the norm (Hunter, 1991; Lehr, 1999). Today many American “families” consist of parents (a married man and a woman) and children, but for much of our history, family often included grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins.

Keywords

Foster Care Lesbian Woman Lesbian Couple Civil Union Sperm Bank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, N. (1999). The other mother: A lesbian’s fight for her daughter. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Laban, S. M., & Abu-Laban, A. (1994) Culture, society and change. In W. A. Meloff & W. D. Pierce (Eds.), An introduction to sociology (pp. 89–120). Nelson, Canada: Scarborough.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K. R. (1997) Lesbian and gay families. In T. Arendell (Ed.), Contemporary parenting: Challenges and issues (pp. 196–218). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Press.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, K. R. (2000) Becoming more inclusive of diversity in family studies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62 (1), 4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnup, K. (1999). Out in this world: The social and legal context of gay and lesbian families. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Studies, 10 (1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baetens, P., & Brewaeys, A. (2001) Lesbian couples requesting donor insemination: An update of the knowledge with regard to lesbian mother families. Human Reproduction Update, 7 (5), 512–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balsam K. F., Beauchain, T. P., Rothblum, E. D., & Solomon, S. E. (2008) Three-year follow-up of same-sex couples who have civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples not in civil unions, and heterosexual married couples. Development Psychology, 44 (1), 102–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, M., & Battle, J (2001) “We can see them but we can’t hear them”: LGBT members of African-American families. In M. Bernstein & R. Reimann (Eds.), Queer families, queer politics: Challenging culture and the states (pp. 53–67). New York: Columbia UniversityPress.Google Scholar
  9. Bogenschneider, K. (2000). Has family policy come of age? A decade review of the state of U.S. family policy in the 1990’s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62 (4), 1136–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bos, H. M. V., van Balen, F., & Van De Boom D. C. (2003). Planned lesbian families: Their desire and motivation to have children. Human Reproduction, 18 (10), 2216–2224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bos, H. M. V., van Balen, F., & Van De Boom, D. C. (2005). Lesbian families and family functioning: An overview. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 263–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boykin, K. (1996). One more river to cross: Black and gay in America. New York: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
  13. Brumbaugh, S. M., Sanchez, L. A., Nock, S. L., & Wright, J. D. (2008). Attitudes toward gay marriage in states undergoing marriage law transformation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calhoun, C. (2002). Feminism, the family, and the politics of the closet: Lesbian and gay displacement. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron, P., & Cameron, K. (1996). Homosexual parents. Adolescence, 31, 757–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Card, C. (1995). Lesbian choices. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cheal, D. (1993). Unity and difference in postmodern families. Journal of Family Issues, 14 (1), 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Comas-Diaz, L., & Greene, B. (Eds.). (1994). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Connolly, C. (1998). The description of gay and lesbian families in second-parent adoption cases. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunne, G. (2000). Opting into motherhood: Lesbians blurring the boundaries and transforming the meaning of parenthood and kinship. Gender and Society, 14 (1), 11–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garcia, B. C. (1998). The development of a Latino gay identity: Latino communities: Emerging voices – political, social, cultural and legal issues. London: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Golombok, S. (2002). Adoption by lesbian couples: Is it in the best interests of the child? British Medical Journal, 324, 1407–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanson, M. J., & Lynch, E. W. (1992). Family diversity: Implications for policy and practice. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 12 (3), 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hartman, A. (1990). Family ties. Social Work, 35, 195–196.Google Scholar
  25. Hunter, N. (1991). Marriage, law, and gender: A feminist inquiry. Law and Sexuality, 1(1), 9–30.Google Scholar
  26. Javaid, G. A. (1993). The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23, 235–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, S., & O’Connor, E. (2002). The gay baby boom: The psychology of gay parenthood. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, C. (2004). Issues: 11 states nix gay marriage; California OKs stem-cell work. USA TODAY, October 28, A18.Google Scholar
  29. Kurdek, L. A. (2004). Are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples really different from heterosexual married couples? Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 880–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kurdek, L. A. (2005). What do we know about gay and lesbian couples? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 (5), 251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Laird, J. (1999), Lesbians and lesbian families: Reflections on theory and practice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lehr, V. (1999). Queer family values: Debunking the myth of the nuclear family. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Liptak, A. (2008). California Supreme Court overturns gay marriage ban. New York Times, May 16, A1.Google Scholar
  34. Malone, K., & Cleary, R. (2002) Desexing the family. Feminist Theory, 3 (3), 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nelson, F. (1996). Lesbian motherhood: An exploration of Canadian lesbian families. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  36. Patterson, C. J. (2000). Family relationships of lesbian and gay men. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(4), 1052–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Patterson, C. J. (2003). Children of lesbian and gay parents. In L. D. Garnet & D. C. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychology perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual experiences (pp. 498–548). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Peplau, L. A., & Spalding, L. R. (2003). The close relationships of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. In L. D. Garnet & D. C. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychology perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual experiences (pp. 441–474). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ritter, K. Y., & Terndrup, A. I. (2002). Handbook of affirmative psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Rostosky, S. S., Riggle, E, Gray, B. E., & Hatton, R. (2007). Minority stress experiences in committed same sex couple relationships. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 38 (4), 392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruthblum, E. D., Balsam, K. F., & Solomon, S. E. (2008). Comparison of same-sex couples who were married in Massachusetts, had domestic partnerships in California, or had civil unions in Vermont. Journal of Family Issues, 29 (1), 48–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Seltzer, R. (1992). The social location of those holding anti-homosexual attitudes. Sex Roles, 2699 (10), 391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stacey, J., & Biblarz, T. J. (2001). How does the sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 66, 159–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stacey, J., & Davenport, E. (2002). Queer families quack back. In D. Richardson & S. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of lesbian and gay studies (pp. 355–374). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Stiers, G. A. (2000). From this day forward: Commitment, marriage, and family in lesbian and gay relationships. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Sullivan, R., & Baques, A. (1999). Families and the adoption option for gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Studies, 10 (1), 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. United States Census Bureau. (2000). Population profile of the United States: 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Last accessed July, 2008; Available at http://www.census.gov
  48. Van Dam, M. A. A. (2004). Mothers in two types of lesbian families: Stigma, experiences, supports, and burdens. Journal of Family Nursing, 10 (4), 450–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wainright, J. L., Russell, S. T., & Patterson, C. J. (2004). Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75 (6), 1886–1898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Werum, R., & Winders, B (2001). Who’s “in” and who’s “out”: State fragmentation and the struggle for over gay rights, 1974–1999. Social Problems, 48, 386–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilson, A. R. (2007). With friends like these: The liberalization of queer family policy. Critical Social Policy, 27 (1), 50–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Mendez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsCenter for Minority Public Health, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations