Minority Sexual Status Among Minorities

  • Kelly D. Brooks
  • Lisa Bowleg
  • Kathryn Quina

As illustrated above, lesbian and bisexual women of color often find themselves at the margins of the racial, gender, and sexual orientation groups to which they belong. As members of multiple stigmatized groups, they face stigma and discrimination on multiple fronts, yet their experiences and needs are rarely fully understood or addressed in social movements and communities that focus on identity-based oppression. This lack of attention is mirrored in social science research and theory concerning marginalized social groups. Social categories such as race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation are often treated singly as if they operated independent of one another; for a large part, separate theories and bodies of research address racial identity, gendered identities, and sexual identity, as well as racism, sexism, and heterosexism (Bowleg, 2008; Fukuyama & Ferguson, 2000; Greene, 2000; Stanley, 2004). By focusing on one identity at a time, such approaches tend to assume majority group status on other identities, representing, for example, the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons who are White and African Americans who are heterosexual. As a result, the experiences of women of color who are sexual minorities are neglected (Greene, 1994).


Sexual Orientation Black Woman Sexual Harassment Sexual Identity Bisexual Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balsam, K. F., & Mohr, J. J. (2007). Adaptation to sexual orientation stigma: A comparison of bisexual and lesbian/gay adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 306–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the lifespan: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 477–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battle, J., Cohen, C. J., Warren, D., Fergerson, G., & Audam, S. (2002). Say it loud: I’m Black and I’m Proud: Black Pride Survey 2000. New York: The Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.Google Scholar
  4. Battle, J., & Crum, M. (2007). Black LGB health and well-being. In I. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.). The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations (pp. 320–352). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Ben-Ari, A. (1995). The discovery that an offspring is gay: Parents’, gay men’s, and lesbians’ perspectives. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(1), 89–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berdahl, J., & Moore, C. (2006). Workplace harassment: Double jeopardy for minority women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 426–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman, M. E., & Drasgow, F. (2003). Race as a moderator in a model of sexual harassment: An empirical test. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(2), 131–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohan, J. S. (1996). Psychology and sexual orientation: Coming to terms. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bowleg, L. (2008). When Black + lesbian + woman ≠ Black lesbian woman: The methodological challenges of qualitative and quantitative intersectionality research. Sex Roles, 59, 312–315.Google Scholar
  10. Bowleg, L. (2000). [Trials and Tribulations qualitative study of Black/African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people]. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
  11. Bowleg, L., Brooks, K., & Ritz, S. (2008). “Bringing home more than a paycheck:” An exploratory analysis of Black lesbians’ experiences of stress and coping in the workplace. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(1), 69–84.Google Scholar
  12. Bowleg, L., Craig, M. L., & Burkholder, G. (2004). Rising and surviving: A conceptual model of active coping among Black lesbians. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowleg, L., Huang, J., Brooks, K., Black, A., & Burkholder, G. (2003). Triple jeopardy and beyond: Multiple minority stress and resilience among Black lesbians. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(4), 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bradford, M. (2004). The bisexual experience: Living in a dichotomous culture. In R. Fox (Ed.). Current research on bisexuality (pp. 7–23). New York: Haworth.Google Scholar
  15. Brooks, V. R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA: DC Heath.Google Scholar
  16. Bryant, C. M., Taylor, R. J., Lincoln, K. D., Chatters, L. M., & Jackson, J. (2008). Marital satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life. Family Relations, 57, 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchanan, N. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2008). Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(2), 137–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchanan, N. T., & Ormerod, A. J. (2002). Racialized sexual harassment in the lives of African American women. Women & Therapy, 25, 107–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Case, P., Austin, B., Hunter, D. J., Manson, J. E., Malspeis, S. Willett, W. C., et al. (2004). Sexual orientation, health risk factors, and physical functioning in the nurses’ health study II. Journal of Women’s Health, 13, 1033–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan, C. S. (1995). Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. In A. R. D’Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan (pp. 87–101). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Chung, Y. B., & Katayama, M. (1998). Ethnic and sexual identity development of Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 1(3), 21–26.Google Scholar
  22. Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54(10), 805–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (1994). Depressive distress among homosexually active African American men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(4), 524–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2006). Estimating prevalence of mental and substance-using disorders among lesbians and gay men from existing national health data. In A. M. Omoto & H. S. Kurtzman (Eds.). Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (pp. 143–165). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M, Alegria, M., Ortega, A. N., & Takeuchi, D. (2007). Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 785–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Collins, P. H. (1991). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Collins, P. H. (2000). Moving beyond gender: Intersectionality and scientific knowledge. In M. M. Ferree, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 261–284). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  28. Collins, J. F. (2007). Counseling at the intersection of identities: Asian/Pacific American bisexuals. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.). Becoming visible: Counseling bisexuals across the lifespan (pp. 229–245). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Conerly, G. (2000). Are you Black first or are you queer? In D. Constantine-Simms (Ed.). The greatest taboo: Homosexuality in Black communities (pp. 7–23). Los Angeles, CA: Alyson Books.Google Scholar
  30. Consolacion, T. B., Russell, S. T., & Sue, S. (2004). Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: Multiple minority status adolescents and mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 200–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crawford, I., Allison, K. W., Zamboni, B. D., & Soto, T. (2002). The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men. The Journal of Sex Research, 39(3), 179–189.Google Scholar
  32. Crenshaw, K. W. (1994). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. In M. A. Fineman & R. Mykitiuk (Eds.). The public nature of private violence (pp. 93–118). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Croteau, J. M., Talbot, D. M., Lance, T. S., & Evans, N. J. (2002). A qualitative study of the interplay between privilege and oppression. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30, 239–258.Google Scholar
  35. D’Augelli, A. R., Hershberger, S. L., & Pilkington, N. W. (1998). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth and their families: Disclosure of sexual orientation and its consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 361–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. D’Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 148–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dang, A., & Frazier, S. (2004). Black same-sex households in the United States: A report from the 2000 Census. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Black Justice Coalition.Google Scholar
  38. Dew, J. (2008). Debt change and marital satisfaction change in recently married couples. Family Relations, 57, 60–71.Google Scholar
  39. Diamant, A. L., & Wold, C. (2003). Sexual orientation and variation in physical and mental health status among women. Journal of Women’s Health, 12, 41–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Diaz, R. M., Ayala, G., Bein, E., Henne, J., & Marin, B. V. (2001). The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: Findings from 3 U.S. cities. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 927–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Diaz, R. M., Bein, E., & Ayala, G. (2006). Homophobia, poverty, and racism: Triple oppression and mental health outcomes in Latino gay men. In A. M. Omoto & H. S. Kurtzman (Eds.). Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (pp. 207–224). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Diplacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G. M. Herek (Ed.). Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 138–159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Dunbar, E. (2006). Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: Identity politics or identity risk? Violence and Victims, 21, 323–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Espin, O. M. (1987). Issues of identity in the psychology of Latina lesbian women. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.). Lesbian psychologies (pp. 35–55). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  45. Fernald, J. L. (1995). Interpersonal heterosexism. In B. Lott & D. Maluso (Eds.). The social psychology of interpersonal discrimination (pp. 80–117). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Fukuyama, M. A., & Ferguson, A. D. (2000). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of color: Understanding cultural complexity and managing multiple oppressions. In R. M. Perez, K. A. DeBord, & K. J. Bieschke (Eds.). Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (pp. 81–105). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fullilove, M. T., & Fullilove, R. E. (1999). Stigma as an obstacle to AIDS action: The case of the African American community. American Behavioral Scientist, 42, 1117–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  50. Greene, B. (1994). Lesbian women of color: Triple jeopardy. In L. Comas-Diaz & B. Greene (Eds.). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 389–427). New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Greene, B. (1996). Lesbians and gay men of color: Ethnosexual mythologies in heterosexism. In E. Rothblum & L. Bond (Eds.). Preventing heterosexism and homophobia (pp. 59–70). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Greene, B. (2000). African American lesbian and bisexual women. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Griffin, P. (1991). From hiding to coming out: Empowering lesbian and gay educators. Journal of Homosexuality, 22(3/4), 167–196.Google Scholar
  54. Hall, R. L., & Greene, B. (2002). Not any one thing: The complex legacy of social class on African American lesbian relationships. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6(1), 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hebl, M. R., Foster, J. B., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Herek, G. M. (1993). Documenting prejudice against lesbians and gay men on campus: The Yale Sexual Orientation Survey. Journal of Homosexuality, 25(4), 15–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Herek, G. M. (2004). Beyond “ homophobia” : Thinking about sexual stigma and prejudice in the twenty-first century. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 1(2), 6–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 905–925.Google Scholar
  60. Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. P. (1995). Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in the United States. The Journal of Sex Research, 32(2), 95–105.Google Scholar
  61. Herek, G., Chopp, R., & Strohl, D. (2007). Sexual stigma: Putting sexual minority health issues in context. In I. Meyer & M. Northridge (Eds.). The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations (pp. 171–208). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., Cogan, J. C., & Glunt, E. K. (1997). Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 195–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 54–74.Google Scholar
  64. Huebner, D. M., Rebchook, G. M., Kegeles, S. M. (2004). Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay men. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1200–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Human Rights Campaign (2008). Statewide employment laws & policies. Retrieved May 18, 2008, from­Laws­and­Policies.pdf
  66. Israel, T., & Mohr, J. J. (2004). Attitudes toward bisexual women and men: Current research, future directions. In R. Fox (Ed.). Current research on bisexuality (pp. 117–134). New York: Haworth.Google Scholar
  67. Kaiser Family Foundation (2001). Inside-out: A report on the experiences of lesbians, gays and bisexuals in America and the public’s views on issues and policies related to sexual orientation. Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  68. Kennamer, J. D., Honmolde, J., Bradford, J., & Hendricks, M. (2000). Differences in disclosure of sexuality among African American and White gay/bisexual men: Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 519–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis, G. (2003). Black-White differences in attitudes toward homosexuality and gay rights. Public Opinion Quarterly, 67, 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lind, A. (2004). Legislating the family: Heterosexist bias in social welfare policy frameworks. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 31(4), 21–35.Google Scholar
  71. Loiacano, D. K. (1989). Gay identity issues among Black Americans: Racism, homophobia, and the need for validation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 21–25.Google Scholar
  72. Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Rhue, S. (1993). The impact of perceived discrimination on the intimate relationships of Black lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 25(4), 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mays, V. M, Cochran, S. D., & Roeder, M. R. (2003). Depressive distress and prevalence of common problems among homosexually active African American women in the United States. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 15(2/3), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mecca, S. J., & Rubin, L. J. Definitional research on African American students and sexual harassment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23 , 813–817.Google Scholar
  75. Media Matters for America (2007, April 4). Imus called women’s basketball team “ nappy-headed hos”. Retrieved May 10, 2008, from,
  76. Meghiri, J. R., & Grimes, M. D. (2000). Coming out to families in a multicultural context. Families in Society, 81(1), 32–41.Google Scholar
  77. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mohr, J. J., & Rochlen, A. B. (1999). Measuring attitudes regarding bisexuality in lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual populations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morales, E. S. (1990). Ethnic minority families and minority gays and lesbians. Marriage and Family Review, 14, 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morris, J., & Balsam, K. F. (2003). Lesbian and bisexual women’s experiences of victimization: Mental health, revictimization, and sexual identity development. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(4), 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Negy, C., & Eisenman, R. (2005). A comparison of African American and White college students’ affective reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: An exploratory study. The Journal of Sex Research, 42, 291–298.Google Scholar
  82. Ochs, R. (1996). Biphobia: It goes more than two ways. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.). Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 217–239). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  83. Otis, M. D., & Skinner, W. F. (1996). The prevalence of victimization and its effect on mental well-being among lesbian and gay people. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(3), 93–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parks, C. A., Hughes, T. L., & Matthews, A. K. (2004). Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation: Intersecting identities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10,241–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pew Research Center (2007). Gay marriage. Retrieved January 12, 2008, from http://pewforum. org/gay-marriage
  86. Pilkington, N. W., & D’Augelli, A. R. (1995). Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings. Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 34–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Poon, M. K., & Ho, P. T. (2002). A qualitative analysis of cultural and social vulnerabilities to HIV infection among gay, lesbian, and bisexual Asian youth. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 14(3), 43–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ramirez-Valles, J. (2007). “I don’t fit anywhere”: How race and sexuality shape Latino gay and bisexual men’s health. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.). The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual and transgender populations (pp. 301–319). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  89. Ramirez-Valles, J., Fergus, S., Reisen, C. A., Poppen, P. J., & Zea, M. C. (2005). Confronting stigma: Community involvement and psychological well-being among HIV-positive Latino gay men. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rayburn, N. R., Earleywine, M., & Davidson, G. C. (2003). Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1209–1221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Reid, P. T. (1993). Poor women in psychological research: Shut up and shut out. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17(2), 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2004). Ethnic/Racial differences in the coming-out process of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A comparison of sexual identity development over time. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10, 215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rust, P. C. (1993). Neutralizing the political threat of the marginal woman: Lesbians’ beliefs about bisexual women. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 214–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rust, P. C. (1996). Managing multiple identities: Diversity among bisexual women and men. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.). Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 53–83). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  95. Rust, P. C. R. (2000). Bisexuality: A contemporary paradox for women. Journal of Social Issues, 56(2), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sandfort, T. G. M., Bos, H., & Vet, R. (2006). Lesbians and gay men at work: Consequences of being out. In A. M. Omoto & H. S. Kurtzman (Eds.). Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (pp. 225–244). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Saris, R. N., & Johnston-Robledo, I. (2000). Poor women are still shut out of mainstream psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 233–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Savin-Williams, R. C. (1996). Ethnic- and sexual-minority youth. In R. C. Savin-Williams & K. M. Cohen (Eds.). The lives of lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: Children to adults (pp. 152–165). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.Google Scholar
  99. Schulte, L. J., & Battle, J. (2004). The relative importance of ethnicity and religion in predicting attitudes toward gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(2), 127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Settles, I. H. (2006). Use of an intersectional framework to understand Black women’s racial and gender identities. Sex Roles, 54, 589–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stanley, J. (2004). Biracial lesbian and bisexual women: Understanding the unique aspects and interactional processes of multiple minority identities. Women and Therapy, 27(1/2), 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Steffens, M. C. (2005). Implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 49(2), 39–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Taylor, Y. (2007). ‘If your face doesn’t fit…’: The misrecognition of working-class lesbians in scene space. Leisure Studies, 26(2), 161–178.Google Scholar
  105. Tremble, B., Schneider, M., & Appathurai, C. (1989). Growing up gay or lesbian in a multicultural context. Journal of Homosexuality, 17, 253–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Udis-Kessler, A. (1991). Present tense: Biphobia as a crisis of meaning. In L. Hutchins & L. Ka’ahumanu (Eds.). Bi any other name: Bisexual people speak out (pp. 350–358). Boston: Alyson.Google Scholar
  107. U. S. Census Bureau (2008). 2008 Statistical Abstract Table 689. People below poverty level and below 125 percent of poverty level by race and Hispanic origin: 1980 to 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2008, from:
  108. Valocchi, S. (1999). The class-inflected nature of gay identity. Social Problems, 46(2), 207–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Waldner, L. K., Sikka, A., & Baig, S. (1999). Ethnicity and sex differences in university students’ knowledge of AIDS, fear of AIDS, and homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 37(3), 117–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walters, K. L (1997). Negotiating conflicts in allegiances among lesbians and gays of color: Reconciling divided selves and communities. In G. P. Mallon (Ed.). Foundations of social work practice with lesbian and gay persons (pp. 47–75). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  111. Walters, K. L., Evans-Campbell, T., Simoni, J. M., Ronquillo, T., & Bhuyan, R. (2006). “ My spirit in my heart” : Identity experiences and challenges among American Indian two-spirit women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 10(1/2), 125–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Weber, L., & Parra-Medina, D. (2003). Intersectionality and women’s health: Charting a path to elimination health disparities. Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine: Key Themes Advances in Gender Research, 7, 181–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wyatt, G. E. (1997). Stolen women: Reclaiming our sexuality, taking back our lives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  114. Wyatt, G. E., & Riederle, M. (1995). The prevalence and context of sexual harassment among African American and White American women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10(3), 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yang, A. (1999). From wrongs to rights: Public opinion on gay and lesbian Americans moves toward equality. Washington, D.C.: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  116. Zea, M. C., Reisen, C. A., – Poppen, P. J. (1999). Psychological well-being among Latino lesbians and gay men. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5, 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zinik, G. (1985). Identity conflict or adaptive flexibility? Bisexuality reconsidered. Journal of Homosexuality, 11, 7–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyGeorge Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community Health and PreventionSchool of Public Health, Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

Personalised recommendations