Radiology of Soft Tissue Tumors Including Melanoma

  • M. J. Shelly
  • P. J. MacMahon
  • S. Eustace
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 143)

Soft tissue tumors are defined as mesenchymal proliferations that occur in the extraskeletal, non-epithelial tissues of the body, excluding the viscera, coverings of the brain and lymphoreticular system [1]. The true frequency of soft tissue tumors is difficult to estimate because most benign lesions are not removed. A conservative estimate is that benign tumors outnumber their malignant counterparts by a ratio of at least 100:1. In the United States only 7,200 sarcomas are diagnosed annually (0.8 percent of invasive malignancies), yet they are responsible for 2 percent of all cancer deaths, reflecting their lethal nature [1]. Classification is based on the tissue from which the lesions arise (Table 16.1). The cause of most soft tissue tumors is unknown. There are documented associations between radiation therapy [2], and rare instances in which chemical burns, heat burns or trauma were associated with subsequent development of sarcoma [1]. Soft tissue tumors may arise in any location, with approximately 50 percent in the extremities (two-thirds of these in the lower extremities), 14 percent in the retroperitoneum, 15 percent in the viscera, 10 percent in the trunk and 11 percent in other sites [3]. Regarding sarcomas, males are affected more frequently than females (ratio 1.4:1), and the incidence generally increases with age. Fifteen percent arise in children and constitute the fourth most common malignancy in this age group [1]. Specific sarcomas tend to appear in certain age groups (e.g., rhabdomyosarcoma in children, synovial sarcoma in young adults and liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma in mid- to late adult life) [1].


Soft Tissue Sarcoma Soft Tissue Mass Synovial Sarcoma Soft Tissue Tumor Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rosenberg A. Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissue Tumors. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, editors. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999. 1259–1267.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brady MS, Gaynor JJ, Brennan MF. Radiation-associated sarcoma of bone and soft tissue. Arch Surg 1992; 127(12):1379–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brennan MF. The surgeon as a leader in cancer care: lessons learned from the study of soft tissue sarcoma. J Am Coll Surg 1996; 182(6):520–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guillou L, Coindre JM, Bonichon F, et al. Comparative study of the National Cancer Institute and French Federation of Cancer Centres Sarcoma Group grading systems in a population of 420 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15(1):350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heslin MJ, Smith JK. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 1999; 8(1):91–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sanders TG, Parsons TW, III. Radiographic imaging of musculoskeletal neoplasia. Cancer Control 2001; 8(3):221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ilaslan H, Sundaram M. Advances in musculoskeletal tumor imaging. Orthop Clin North Am 2006; 37(3):375–91, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CKERMAN LV. Extra-osseous localized non-neoplastic bone and cartilage formation (so-called myositis ossificans): clinical and pathological confusion with malignant neoplasms. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1958; 40-A(2):279–298.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levine E, Lee KR, Neff JR, Maklad NF, Robinson RG, Preston DF. Comparison of computed tomography and other imaging modalities in the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors. Radiology 1979; 131(2):431–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martel W, Abell MR. Radiologic evaluation of soft tissue tumors. A retrospective study. Cancer 1973; 32(2):352–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kransdorf MJ, Jelinek JS, Moser RP, Jr. Imaging of soft tissue tumors. Radiol Clin North Am 1993; 31(2):359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chew FS, Hudson TM, Enneking WF. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms. Semin Nucl Med 1981; 11(4):266–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fornage BD. Soft tissue masses. Clin Diagn Ultrasound 1995; 30:21–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taylor GA, Perlman EJ, Scherer LR, Gearhart JP, Leventhal BG, Wiley J. Vascularity of tumors in children: evaluation with color Doppler imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 157(6):1267–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eskey CJ, Robson CD, Weber AL. Imaging of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am 2000; 38(5):1091–104, xi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richardson ML, Gillespy T. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Kricun ME, editor. Imaging of bone tumors. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1993. 358–446.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheng EY, Thompson RC, Jr. New developments in the staging and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas. Instr Course Lect 2000; 49:443–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reddick WE, Wang S, Xiong X, Glass JO, Wu S, Kaste SC et al. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of regional contrast access as an additional prognostic factor in pediatric osteosarcoma. Cancer 2001; 91(12):2230–2237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kole AC, Nieweg OE, van Ginkel RJ, Pruim J, Hoekstra HJ, Paans AM et al. Detection of local recurrence of soft tissue sarcoma with positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Ann Surg Oncol 1997; 4(1):57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hawkins DS, Schuetze SM, Butrynski JE, Rajendran JG, Vernon CB, Conrad EU, III et al. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography predicts outcome for Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(34):8828–8834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schuetze SM, Rubin BP, Vernon C, Hawkins DS, Bruckner JD, Conrad EU, III et al. Use of positron emission tomography in localized extremity soft tissue sarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer 2005; 103(2):339–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jones DN, McCowage GB, Sostman HD, Brizel DM, Layfield L, Charles HC et al. Monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy response of soft tissue and musculoskeletal sarcoma using fluorine-18-FDG PET. J Nucl Med 1996; 37(9):1438–1444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hawkins DS, Rajendran JG, Conrad EU, III, Bruckner JD, Eary JF. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in pediatric bone sarcomas by [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Cancer 2002; 94(12):3277–3284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Folpe AL, Lyles RH, Sprouse JT, Conrad EU, III, Eary JF. (F-18) fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as a predictor of pathologic grade and other prognostic variables in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6(4):1279–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCarville MB, Christie R, Daw NC, Spunt SL, Kaste SC. PET/CT in the evaluation of childhood sarcomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 184(4):1293–1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wegner EA, Barrington SF, Kingston JE, Robinson RO, Ferner RE, Taj M et al. The impact of PET scanning on management of paediatric oncology patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32(1):23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lucas JD, O’Doherty MJ, Cronin BF, Marsden PK, Lodge MA, McKee PH et al. Prospective evaluation of soft tissue masses and sarcomas using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Br J Surg 1999; 86(4):550–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lucas JD, O’Doherty MJ, Wong JC, Bingham JB, McKee PH, Fletcher CD et al. Evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of soft tissue sarcomas. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1998; 80(3):441–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siegel BA, Dehdashti F. Oncologic PET/CT: current status and controversies. Eur Radiol 2005; 15 Suppl 4:D127–D132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conrad EU, III, Morgan HD, Vernon C, Schuetze SM, Eary JF. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning: basic principles and imaging of adult soft tissue sarcomas. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A Suppl 2:98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aoki J, Endo K, Watanabe H, Shinozaki T, Yanagawa T, Ahmed AR et al. FDG-PET for evaluating musculoskeletal tumors: a review. J Orthop Sci 2003; 8(3):435–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kole AC, Nieweg OE, Hoekstra HJ, van H, Jr., Koops HS, Vaalburg W. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose assessment of glucose metabolism in bone tumors. J Nucl Med 1998; 39(5):810–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aoki J, Watanabe H, Shinozaki T, Takagishi K, Tokunaga M, Koyama Y et al. FDG-PET for preoperative differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses. Skeletal Radiol 2003; 32(3):133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ben Arush MW, Bar SR, Postovsky S, Militianu D, Haimi M, Zaidman I et al. Assessing the use of FDG-PET in the detection of regional and metastatic nodes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of extremities. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2006; 28(7):440–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schuetze SM. Utility of positron emission tomography in sarcomas. Curr Opin Oncol 2006; 18(4):369–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schuetze SM. Imaging and response in soft tissue sarcomas. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2005; 19(3):471–87, vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yao L, Nelson SD, Seeger LL, Eckardt JJ, Eilber FR. Primary musculoskeletal neoplasms: effectiveness of core-needle biopsy. Radiology 1999; 212(3):682–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dupuy DE, Rosenberg AE, Punyaratabandhu T, Tan MH, Mankin HJ. Accuracy of CT-guided needle biopsy of musculoskeletal neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171(3):759–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Adams DF, Nawfel RD, Zou KH, Judy PF. CT fluoroscopy-guided abdominal interventions: techniques, results, and radiation exposure. Radiology 1999; 212(3):673–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fletcher JA. Soft Tissue Tumors. St. Louis: Mosby; 1995.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ahuja AT, King AD, Kew J, King W, Metreweli C. Head and neck lipomas: sonographic appearance. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19(3):505–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gritzmann N, Schratter M, Traxler M, Helmer M. Sonography and computed tomography in deep cervical lipomas and lipomatosis of the neck. J Ultrasound Med 1988; 7(8):451–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fornage BD, Tassin GB. Sonographic appearances of superficial soft tissue lipomas. J Clin Ultrasound 1991; 19(4):215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hosono M, Kobayashi H, Fujimoto R, Kotoura Y, Tsuboyama T, Matsusue Y et al. Septum-like structures in lipoma and liposarcoma: MR imaging and pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol 1997; 26(3):150–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gaskin CM, Helms CA. Lipomas, lipoma variants, and well-differentiated liposarcomas (atypical lipomas): results of MRI evaluations of 126 consecutive fatty masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004; 182(3):733–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stewart MG, Schwartz MR, Alford BR. Atypical and malignant lipomatous lesions of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 120(10):1151–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Einarsdottir H, Soderlund V, Larsson O, Mandahl N, Bauer HC. 110 subfascial lipomatous tumors. MR and CT findings versus histopathological diagnosis and cytogenetic analysis. Acta Radiol 1999; 40(6):603–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW. Soft Tissue Tumors. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1995.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kransdorf MJ, Murphey MD. Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eich GF, Hoeffel JC, Tschappeler H, Gassner I, Willi UV. Fibrous tumors in children: imaging features of a heterogeneous group of disorders. Pediatr Radiol 1998; 28(7):500–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Quinn SF, Erickson SJ, Dee PM, Walling A, Hackbarth DA, Knudson GJ et al. MR imaging in fibromatosis: results in 26 patients with pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156(3):539–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hartman TE, Berquist TH, Fetsch JF. MR imaging of extraabdominal desmoids: differentiation from other neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992; 158(3):581–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Patel SC, Silbergleit R, Talati SJ. Sarcomas of the head and neck. Top Magn Reson Imaging 1999; 10(6):362–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    O’Connell TE, Castillo M, Mukherji SK. Fibrosarcoma arising in the maxillary sinus: CT and MR features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1996; 20(5):736–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    White LM, Buckwalter KA. Technical considerations: CT and MR imaging in the postoperative orthopedic patient. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2002; 6(1):5–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mahajan H, Kim EE, Wallace S, Abello R, Benjamin R, Evans HL. Magnetic resonance imaging of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Magn Reson Imaging 1989; 7(3):283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Munk PL, Sallomi DF, Janzen DL, Lee MJ, Connell DG, O’Connell JX et al. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft tissue imaging with emphasis on MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1998; 22(5):819–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Helmberger RC, Stringer SP, Mancuso AA. Rhabdomyoma of the pharyngeal musculature extending into the prestyloid parapharyngeal space. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17(6):1115–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Freije JE, Gluckman JL, Biddinger PW, Wiot G. Muscle tumors in the parapharyngeal space. Head Neck 1992; 14(1):49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vermeersch H, van VP, Lemmerling M, Moerman M, De PC. Bilateral recurrent adult rhabdomyomas of the pharyngeal wall. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2000; 257(1):24–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Malogolowkin MH, Ortega JA. Rhabdomyosarcoma of childhood. Pediatr Ann 1988; 17(4):251, 254–251, 268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pappo AS, Shapiro DN, Crist WM. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Biology and treatment. Pediatr Clin North Am 1997; 44(4):953–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yousem DM, Lexa FJ, Bilaniuk LT, Zimmerman RI. Rhabdomyosarcomas in the head and neck: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology 1990; 177(3):683–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Betts MT, Huo EJ, Miller FH. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary smooth-muscle tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181(5):1349–1354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hines OJ, Nelson S, Quinones-Baldrich WJ, Eilber FR. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: prognosis and comparison with leiomyosarcoma of other anatomic sites. Cancer 1999; 85(5):1077–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McLeod AJ, Zornoza J, Shirkhoda A. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings. Radiology 1984; 152(1):133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ohnishi T, Yoshioka H, Ishida O. MR imaging of gastrointestinal leiomyosarcoma. Radiat Med 1991; 9(3):114–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen JJ, Changchien CS, Chiou SS, Tai DI, Lee CM, Kuo CH. Various sonographic patterns of smooth muscle tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: a comparison with computed tomography. J Ultrasound Med 1992; 11(10):527–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schoen FJ, Cotran RS. Blood Vessels. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, editors. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999. 531–538.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Greenspan A, McGahan JP, Vogelsang P, Szabo RM. Imaging strategies in the evaluation of soft tissue hemangiomas of the extremities: correlation of the findings of plain radiography, angiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasonography in 12 histologically proven cases. Skeletal Radiol 1992; 21(1):11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Woodward AH, Ivins JC, Soule EH. Lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedematous extremities. Cancer 1972; 30(2):562–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nakazono T, Kudo S, Matsuo Y, Matsubayashi R, Ehara S, Narisawa H et al. Angiosarcoma associated with chronic lymphedema (Stewart-Treves syndrome) of the leg: MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol 2000; 29(7):413–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Worawattanakul S, Semelka RC, Kelekis NL, Woosley JT. Angiosarcoma of the liver: MR imaging pre- and post-chemotherapy. Magn Reson Imaging 1997; 15(5):613–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    De Girolami U, Anthony DC, Frosch MP. The Central Nervous System. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, editors. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999. 1352–1354.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hughes DG, Wilson DJ. Ultrasound appearances of peripheral nerve tumors. Br J Radiol 1986; 59(706):1041–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fornage BD. Peripheral nerves of the extremities: imaging with US. Radiology 1988; 167(1):179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kuo CH, Changchien CS. Sonographic features of retroperitoneal neurilemoma. J Clin Ultrasound 1993; 21(5):309–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cohen LM, Schwartz AM, Rockoff SD. Benign schwannomas: pathologic basis for CT inhomogeneities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986; 147(1):141–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hughes DG, Wilson DJ. Ultrasound appearances of peripheral nerve tumors. Br J Radiol 1986; 59(706):1041–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chui MC, Bird BL, Rogers J. Extracranial and extraspinal nerve sheath tumors: computed tomographic evaluation. Neuroradiology 1988; 30(1):47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kumar AJ, Kuhajda FP, Martinez CR, Fishman EK, Jezic DV, Siegelman SS. Computed tomography of extracranial nerve sheath tumors with pathological correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1983; 7(5):857–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Armstrong SJ, Watt I. Imaging of soft tissue tumors. Curr Opin Radiol 1992; 4(6):39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Beggs I. Pictorial review: imaging of peripheral nerve tumors. Clin Radiol 1997; 52(1):8–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stull MA, Moser RP, Jr., Kransdorf MJ, Bogumill GP, Nelson MC. Magnetic resonance appearance of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Skeletal Radiol 1991; 20(1):9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Burk DL, Jr., Brunberg JA, Kanal E, Latchaw RE, Wolf GL. Spinal and paraspinal neurofibromatosis: surface coil MR imaging at 1.5 T1. Radiology 1987; 162(3):797–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gossios KJ, Guy RL. Case report: imaging of widespread plexiform neurofibromatosis. Clin Radiol 1993; 47(3):211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Suh JS, Abenoza P, Galloway HR, Everson LI, Griffiths HJ. Peripheral (extracranial) nerve tumors: correlation of MR imaging and histologic findings. Radiology 1992; 183(2):341–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ferner RE, Lucas JD, O’Doherty MJ, Hughes RA, Smith MA, Cronin BF et al. Evaluation of (18) fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) FDG PET) in the detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising from within plexiform neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis 1. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000; 68(3):353–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Terry DG, Sauser DD, Gordon MD. Intraosseous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Skeletal Radiol 1998; 27(6):346–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fornage BD. Peripheral nerves of the extremities: imaging with US. Radiology 1988; 167(1):179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Levine E, Huntrakoon M, Wetzel LH. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1987; 149(5):1059–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cardona S, Schwarzbach M, Hinz U, mitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Attigah N, Mechtersheimer section et al. Evaluation of F18-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to assess the nature of neurogenic tumors. Eur J Surg Oncol 2003; 29(6):536–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McCarville MB, Spunt SL, Skapek SX, Pappo AS. Synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 179(3):797–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Murphey MD, Gibson MS, Jennings BT, Crespo-Rodriguez AM, Fanburg-Smith J, Gajewski DA. From the archives of the AFIP: Imaging of synovial sarcoma with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2006; 26(5):1543–1565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Horowitz AL, Resnick D, Watson RC. The roentgen features of synovial sarcomas. Clin Radiol 1973; 24(4):481–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rice S, Stewart CA. Synovial sarcoma seen on bone scan. Clin Nucl Med 1990; 15(6):445–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tateishi U, Hasegawa T, Beppu Y, Satake M, Moriyama N. Synovial sarcoma of the soft tissues: prognostic significance of imaging features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2004; 28(1):140–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morton MJ, Berquist TH, McLeod RA, Unni KK, Sim FH. MR imaging of synovial sarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156(2):337–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jones BC, Sundaram M, Kransdorf MJ. Synovial sarcoma: MR imaging findings in 34 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 161(4):827–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A et al. Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55(1):10–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Murphy GF, Mihm MC. The skin. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, editors. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999. 1177–1186.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mihm MC, Jr., Clark WH, Jr., From L. The clinical diagnosis, classification and histogenetic concepts of the early stages of cutaneous malignant melanomas. N Engl J Med 1971; 284(19):1078–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg 1970; 172(5):902–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Clark WH, Jr., Elder DE, Guerry D, Braitman LE, Trock BJ, Schultz D et al. Model predicting survival in stage I melanoma based on tumor progression. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81(24):1893–1904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Essner R, Belhocine T, Scott AM, Even-Sapir E. Novel imaging techniques in melanoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2006; 15(2):253–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Essner R, Elashoff R, Stern SL, Nieweg OE et al. Validation of the accuracy of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for early-stage melanoma: a multicenter trial. Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group. Ann Surg 1999; 230(4):453–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Escott EJ. A variety of appearances of malignant melanoma in the head: a review. Radiographics 2001; 21(3):625–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cochran AJ, Balda BR, Starz H, Bachter D, Krag DN, Cruse CW et al. The Augsburg Consensus. Techniques of lymphatic mapping, sentinel lymphadenectomy, and completion lymphadenectomy in cutaneous malignancies. Cancer 2000; 89(2):236–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gershenwald JE, Thompson W, Mansfield PF, Lee JE, Colome MI, Tseng CH et al. Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17(3):976–983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schoder H, Larson SM, Yeung HW. PET/CT in oncology: integration into clinical management of lymphoma, melanoma, and gastrointestinal malignancies. J Nucl Med 2004; 45 Suppl 1:72S–81S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schwimmer J, Essner R, Patel A, Jahan SA, Shepherd JE, Park K et al. A review of the literature for whole-body FDG PET in the management of patients with melanoma. Q J Nucl Med 2000; 44(2):153–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schillaci O. Hybrid SPECT/CT: a new era for SPECT imaging? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32(5):521–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Essner R, Hsueh EC, Haigh PI, Glass EC, Huynh Y, Daghighian F. Application of an [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose-sensitive probe for the intraoperative detection of malignancy. J Surg Res 2001; 96(1):120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Shelly
    • 1
  • P. J. MacMahon
    • 1
  • S. Eustace
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMater Misericordiae University HospitalIreland

Personalised recommendations