Imaging of Colorectal Carcinoma

  • Jorge A. Soto
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 143)

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States, where the annual incidence is estimated at 150,000 cases [1, 2]. American adults have a 5 percent chance of developing a colorectal carcinoma and approximately a 2 percent chance of dying from the disease [3]. Colorectal cancer is also an important cause of cancer-related mortality in many other Western countries, although distribution of the disease varies widely throughout the world. Mortality from colorectal cancer is similar for males and females. Importantly, as is the case for many malignancies, mortality is directly related to the stage at the time of diagnosis, with five-year survival decreasing from over 80 percent for early-stage disease, to less than 10 percent for patients with distant metastases [2]. Unfortunately, less than 40 percent of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed before the disease has spread beyond the wall of the colon or rectum. Factors that increase the risk for developing colorectal cancer include genetic predisposition, such as familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAP), hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative (especially if younger than 60 years) and personal history of colon cancer. Individuals with a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer have a lifetime risk of 12 percent to 15 percent [4]. Risk increases with age (more than 90 percent of colorectal carcinomas occur in patients older than 50 years) and with underlying conditions such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease (especially ulcerative colitis), diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption. It is also widely believed that diets low in fiber and high in fat content and animal protein are also associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.


Colorectal Cancer Positron Emission Tomography Rectal Cancer Liver Metastasis Colorectal Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Soto
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston Medical CenterBostonUSA

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