Speech Recognition, or the process of automatically recognizing speech uttered by human users just a human listener would, is one of the most intriguing areas of speech processing. Indeed, it can be the most natural means for a human to interact with any electronics-based system as it is similar to how people receive and process a large proportion of information in their daily lives. The related tasks of Speaker Recognition and Speaker Identification are also vital elements of many embedded systems, especially those in which some kind of secure access is required. This chapter explains the benefits and various applications of speech and speaker recognition, and provides a broad overview of algorithms and techniques that are employed for these purposes. While the subtle details of such algorithms are an extensive area of research and tend to be mathematical, the core concepts will be described here with a view to efficient implementation on real-time embedded applications.