Food Sterilization by Combining High Pressure and Thermal Energy

  • Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas
  • P. Juliano
Part of the Food Engineering series book series (FSES)

High pressure processing (HPP) is an industrially tested technology that offers a more natural, environmentally friendly alternative for pasteurization or shelf life extension of a wide range of food products (Welti-Chanes et al., 2005). Commercial high pressure, low temperature methods achieve inactivation of vegetative microorganisms by subjecting vacuum-sealed food in flexible packaging to treatment at hydrostatic pressures of 600 MPa (or less) and initial temperatures lower than 40°C for one to fifteen min depending upon the product application. The use of lower temperatures has allowed better retention of sensory attributes characteristic of “fresh” or “just prepared,” as well as food nutritional components (Cano and de Ancos, 2005). As a result, HPP has become a post packaging technology convenient for foods whose quality would otherwise be altered by heat pasteurization.

Among many advantages, HPP can add significant value to low-cost or heatsensitive raw materials and other prepared foods. Furthermore, similar quality levels can be reached when processing large volumes or larger samples. Different from heat penetration, hydrostatic pressurization allows “instant” pressure transmission in fluids and semisolids within the pressure vessel, thereby achieving reduced product damage from lower temperatures. Moreover, HPP can add significant shelf life to an existing refrigerated product (Hjelmqwist, 2005). In fact, it has the potential to deliver chemical- or additive-free products with minimum impact on shelf life.


High Hydrostatic Pressure High Pressure Processing Microbial Inactivation Food Sterilization Decompression Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 9CFR318.300, 2002, Animals and Animal Products. Entry into Official Establishments; Reinspection and Preparation of Products. Canning and Canned Products, in: Food Safety and Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Federal Register, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Title 9, Chapter III, Part 318, Subpart G.Google Scholar
  2. 9CFR381.300, 2003, Animals and Animal Products. Poultry Products Inspection Regulations. Canning and Canned Products, in: Food Safety and Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Federal Register, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Title 9, Chapter III, Part 381, Subpart X.Google Scholar
  3. 21CFR113, 2005, Food and Drugs. Food for Human Consumption, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers, in: US Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Federal Register, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Title 21, Chapter I, Subchapter B, Part 113.Google Scholar
  4. 21CFR114, 2005, Food and Drugs. Food for Human Consumption. Acidified Foods, in: US Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Federal Register, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Title 21, Chapter I, Subchapter B, Part 114.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, J., Ramaswamy, H.S., Alli, I., and Ngadi M., 2003, Effect of High Pressure on Rheological Characteristics of Liquid Egg, Lebensm.- Wiss. U.-Technol. 36(5):517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahn J., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Yousef A.E., 2005, Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing on the Inactivation of Selected Clostridium and Bacillus Surrogate Spores [Abstract]. Nonthermal Processing Workshop, September 15–16, Philadelphia, PA, USDA Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA ARS Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA, Abstract no.# p. 24.Google Scholar
  7. Ardia, A., Knorr, D., and Heinz V., 2004, Adiabatic Heat Modeling for Pressure Build-Up During High-Pressure Treatment in Liquid-Food Processing, Food Bioprod. Process. 82(C1):89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balasubramaniam, S., and Balasubramaniam V.M., 2003, Compression Heating Influence of Pressure Transmitting Fluids on Bacteria Inactivation During High Pressure Processing, Food Res. Int. 36(7):661–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balasubramaniam, V.M., Ting, E.Y., Stewart, C.M., and Robbins J. A., 2004, Recommended Laboratory Practices For Conducting High-Pressure Microbial Inactivation Experiments, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 5(3):299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baliga, B.R., Rao, A.S., and Lahiry N.L., 1969, Prevention of Browning in Hard Boiled Eggs During Canning. J. Food Sci. Technol. 6(3):200–204.Google Scholar
  11. Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., Juliano, P., and Keener L., 2005a, Legislative Issues with Respect to Processed Food, in: Global Harmonization of Legislation of Food Products and Processes, Institute of Food Technologists Conference. New Orleans, July 2005, pp. 27–3.Google Scholar
  12. Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., Juliano, P., Koutchma, T., Balasubramaniam, V.M., Mathews, J.W., and Dunne C.P. 2005b, High Pressure Thermal Sterilization of Precooked Egg Patties: Factors Affecting Preheating Efficiency, in: High Pressure Processing, American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, p. 572c.Google Scholar
  13. Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Rodríguez J.J., 2005, Thermodynamic Aspects of High Hydrostatic Pressure, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 183–206.Google Scholar
  14. Campanella, O.H., and Peleg M., 2001, Theoretical Comparison of a New and the Traditional Method to Calculate Clostridium Botulinum Survival During Thermal Inactivation, J. Sci. Food Agr. 81:1069–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caner, C., Hernandez, R.J., Pascall, M., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Harte B.R., 2004, The Effect of High-Pressure Food Processing on the Sorption Behavior of Selected Packaging Materials, Packaging Technol. Sci. 17(3):139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cano, M.P., and De Ancos B., 2005, Advances in Use of High Pressure Processing and Preservation of Plant Foods, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 283–310.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, T., Chen, P., and Fletcher A., 2003, A Method to Characterize Heat Transfer During High-Pressure Processing, J. Food Eng. 60:131–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Codex, 2004, Procedural Manual of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, 14 Ed., Codex Alimentarius Commission. Rome.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, K.L., Call, M.K., and Meyer R.S. (Inventors), 2004, Ultra-High Pressure Vegetable Sterilization Method and Product, patent: U.S. 20040191382.Google Scholar
  20. De Heij, W.B.C., van den Berg, R.W., van Schepdael, L., Hoogland, H., and Bijmolt H., 2005, Sterilization–only better, New Food 8(2):56, 58–61.Google Scholar
  21. De Heij, W., van Schepdael, L., van den Berg, R., and Bartels P., 2002, Increasing Preservation Efficiency and Product Quality Through Control of Temperature Profiles in High Pressure Applications, High Pressure Res. 22(3–4):653–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Heij, W.B.C., van Schepdael, L.J.M.M., Moezelaar, R., Hoogland, H., Matser, A.M., and van den Berg R.W. 2003. High-Pressure Sterilization: Maximizing the Benefits of Adiabatic Heating. Food Technol. 57(3):37–42.Google Scholar
  23. Denys, S., van Loey, A.M., and Hendrickx M.E. 2000. A Modeling Approach for Evaluating Process Uniformity During Batch High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing: Combination of a Numerical Heat Transfer Model and Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 1(1):5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunne, C.P., 2005, Personal Communication, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Department of Defense, August 5.Google Scholar
  25. EC258/97, 1997, Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients, Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997, Official Journal L 043, 14/02/1997, pp. 0001–0006.Google Scholar
  26. European Commission, 2002, Implementation of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 Concerning Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients, Directorate General Health and Consumer Protection (SANCO D4), European Commission. (March 10, 2006);
  27. Farkas, D.F., and Hoover D.G., 2000, High Pressure Processing, in: Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies, J. Food Sci. Supplement, pp. 47–64.Google Scholar
  28. Franceschini, B., Gola, S., Rovere, P.P., and Frustoli M., 2005, Application of High Hydrostatic Pressure to Increase the Safety and the Shelf-Life of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Traditional Meals, Ind. Conserve. 80(4):391–409.Google Scholar
  29. Gola, S., Foman, C., Carpi, G., Maggi, A., Cassara, A., and Rovere P., 1996, Inactivation of Bacterial Spores in Phosphate Buffer and in Vegetable Cream Treated with High Pressure, in: High Press Biosci. Biotechnol, R. Hayashi and C. Balny (eds.), Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gola, S., and Rovere, P.P., 2005, Resistance to High Hydrostatic Pressure of Some Strains of Clostridium Botulinum in Phosphate Buffer, Ind. Conserve. 80(2):149–157.Google Scholar
  31. Guamis, B., Pla, R., Trujillo, A.J., Capellas, M., Gervilla, R., Saldo, J., and Yuste J., 2005, High Pressure Processing of Milk and Dairy and Egg Products, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 343–360.Google Scholar
  32. Hartmann, C., and Delgado, A., 2002, Numerical Simulation of Convective and Diffusive Transport Effects on a High-Pressure Induced Inactivation Process, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 79:94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartmann, C., and Delgado, A., 2003, The Influence of Transport Phenomena During High-Pressure Processing of Packed Food on The Uniformity of Enzyme Inactivation, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 82(6):725–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hartmann, C., Delgado, A., and Szymczyk J., 2003, Convective and Diffusive Transport Effects in a High Pressure Induced Inactivation Process of Packed Food, J. Food Eng. 59(1):33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harvey, A.H., Peskin, A.P., and Sanford A.K., 1996, NIST/ASTME–IAPSW Standard Reference Database 10, version 2.2.Google Scholar
  36. Heinz, V., and Knorr D., 2001, Effect Of High Pressure On Spores, in: Ultra High Pressure Treatment of Foods, M.E.C. Hendrickx and D. Knorr (eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 77–116.Google Scholar
  37. Hendricks, M., 2005, Pathways to Commercialization: From Academia to the Marketplace Academic Incubators and Innovation (European Model), in: Commercializing Nonthermal Technologies, Institute of Food Technologists Continuing Technical Education Committee. New Orleans, pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  38. Hirsch, E.S., Kramer, F.M., and Meiselman H.L., 2005, Effects of Food Attributes and Feeding Environment on Acceptance, Consumption and Body Weight: Lessons Learned in a Twenty-Year Program of Military Ration Research. US Army Research (Part 2). Appetite 44(1):33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hjelmqwist, J., 2005, Commercial High Pressure Equipment, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 361–374.Google Scholar
  40. Holdsworth, S. D., 1997, Thermal Processing of Packaged Foods, Blackie Academic & Professional, New York, pp. 112–120.Google Scholar
  41. Hoogland, H., de Heij, W., and van Schepdael L., 2001, High Pressure Sterilization: Novel Technology, New Products, New Opportunities, New Food, 4(1):21–26.Google Scholar
  42. Juliano, P., Clark, S., Koutchma, T., Ouattara, M., Mathews, J.W., Dunne, C.P., and Barbosa-Cánovas G. V., 2007, Consumer And Trained Panel Evaluation Of High Pressure Thermally Treated Scrambled Egg Patties, J. Food Qual. 30(1):57–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Juliano, P., Li, B., Clark, S., Mathews, J.W., Dunne, P.C., and Barbosa-Cánovas G.V., 2006a, Quality and Sensory Analysis of Precooked Egg Products After High Pressure Processing Combined with Low and High Temperatures, J. Food Qual. 29(5):505–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Juliano, P., Toldrà, M., Koutchma, T., Balasubramaniam, V.M., Clark, S., Mathews, J.W., Dunne, C.P., Sadler, G., and Barbosa-Cánovas G.V., 2006b, Texture and Water Retention Improvement in High Pressure Thermally Sterilized Scrambled Egg Patties. J. Food Sci. 71(2):E52–61.Google Scholar
  45. Kalchayanand, N., Dunne, C.P., Sikes, A., and Ray, B., 2003, Inactivation of Bacterial Spores by Combined Action of Hydrostatic Pressure and Bacteriocins in Roast Beef, J. Food Saf. 23(4):219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Koutchma, T., Guo, B., Patazca, E., and Parisi B., 2005, High Pressure–High Temperature Inactivation of Clostridium Sporogenes Spores: From Kinetics To Process Verification, J. Food Process. Eng. 28(6):610–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Krebbers, B., Matser, A.M., Hoogerwerf, S.W., Moezelaar, R., Tomassen, M.M.M., and van den Berg R.W., 2003, Combined High-Pressure and Thermal Treatments for Processing of Tomato Puree: Evaluation of Microbial Inactivation and Quality Parameters, Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 4(4):377–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Krebbers, B., Matser, A.M., Koets, M., and van den Berg R.W., 2002, Quality and Storage-Stability of High-Pressure Preserved Green Beans, J Food Eng. 54(1):27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leadley, C., 2005, High Pressure Sterilisation: A Review . Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association 47:1–42.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, D.U., Heinz, V., and Knorr D., 1999, Evaluation of Processing Criteria for the High Pressure Treatment of Liquid Whole Egg: Rheological Study, Lebensm.- Wiss. U.-Technol. 32(5):299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ludikhuyze, L., van den Broeck, I., Weemaes, C.A., and Hendrickx M.E., 1997, Kinetic Parameters For Temperature-Pressure Inactivation Of Bacillus Subtilis t-Amylase Under Dynamic Conditions, Biotechnol. Prog. 13:617–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luechapattanaporn, K., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Tang, J., Hallberg, L.M., and Dunne C.P., 2005, Sterilization of Scrambled Eggs in Military Polymeric Trays by Radio Frequency Energy, J. Food Sci. 70(4):288–294.Google Scholar
  53. Ma, L., Chang, F.J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Swanson B.G., 2001, Comparison Study of Pulsed Electric Fields, High Hydrostatic Pressure, and Thermal Processing on the Electrophoretic Patterns of Liquid Whole Egg, in: Pulsed Electric Fields in Food Processing: Fundamental Aspects and Applications, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas and H. Zhang (eds.), Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, pp. 225–240.Google Scholar
  54. Margosch, D., 2005, Behavior of Bacterial Endospores and Toxins as Safety Determinants in Low Acid Pressurized Food, Doctoral Dissertation, Technischen Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  55. Margosch, D., Ehrmann, M.A., Gaenzle, M.G., and Vogel R.F., 2004, Comparison of Pressure and Heat Resistance of Clostridium Botulinum and Other Endospores in Mashed Carrots, J. Food Prot. 67(11):2530–2537.Google Scholar
  56. Margosch, D., Moravek, M., Gaenzle, M.C., Maertlbauer, E., Vogel, R F., and Ehrmann M.A., 2005, Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 43(3):211–217.Google Scholar
  57. März, A., 2002, Method for Inactivating Microorganisms Using High Pressure Processing. Patent number: EP 1 201 252 A1.Google Scholar
  58. März, A., 2003, Method for Inactivating Microorganisms Using High Pressure Processing. Patent number: US 6635223.Google Scholar
  59. Matser, A.M., Krebbers, B., van den Berg, R.W., and Bartels P.V., 2004, Advantages of High Pressure Sterilization on Quality of Food Products, Trends Food Sci Technol. 15(2):79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mermelstein, N.H., 2001, Military and Humanitarian Rations, Food Technol. 55(11):73–75.Google Scholar
  61. Meyer, R.S., Cooper, K.L., Knorr, D., and Lelieveld H.L.M., 2000, High-Pressure Sterilization of Foods. Food Technol. 54(11):67–68, 70–72.Google Scholar
  62. Montero, P. and Gómez-Guillén M.C., 2005, High Pressure Applications on Myosystems, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 311–342.Google Scholar
  63. NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods), 2004, Requisite Scientific Parameters for Establishing the Equivalence Oof Alternative Methods of Pasteurization. (Washington; March 10, 2006)
  64. NACMCF. 2005. Consideration for Establishing Safety-Based Consume-By Date Labels for Refrigerated Ready-To-Eat Foods, J. Food Prot. 68(8):1761–1775.Google Scholar
  65. NC Hyperbaric, 2004, High Pressure Processing. Technology That Makes Sense. [Commercial booklet], Burgos.Google Scholar
  66. NFPA. 1985. Guidelines for Thermal Process Development for Foods Packaged in Flexible Containers. National Food Processors Association (NFPA), New York.Google Scholar
  67. Nicolaï, M.B., Scheerlinck, N., Verboven, P., and Baerdemaeker J.D. 2001. Stochastic Finite-Element Analysis of Thermal Food Processes, in: Food Processing Operations Modeling. Design and Analysis, J. Irudayaraj (ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 265–304.Google Scholar
  68. Otero, L., Molina-Garcia, A.D., and Sanz P.D., 2000, Thermal Effect in Foods During Quasi-Adiabatic Pressure Treatments, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 1:119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Otero, L., and Sanz P.D., 2003, Modeling Heat Transfer in High Pressure Food Processing: A Review. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 4(2):121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Patterson, M.F., 2005, A Review: Microbiology of Pressure-Treated Foods, J. Applied Microbiol. 98:1400–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Palazoglu, K., 2006, Influence of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Heating Rate of Materials with Different Thermal Diffusivities, J. Food Eng. 73(3):290–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peleg, M., Normand, M.D., and Campanella O.H., 2003, Estimating Microbial Inactivation Parameters from Survival Curves Obtained Under Varying Conditions–The Linear Case, Bull. Math. Biol. 65:219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peleg, M., Normand, M.D., and Corradini M.G., 2005, Generating Microbial Survival Curves During Thermal Processing in Real Time, J. Appl. Microbiol. 98:406–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pflug, I.J., 1987, Using the Straight-Line Semi Logarithmic Microbial Destruction Model As an Engineering Design Model for Determining the F-Value for Heat Processes, J. Food Prot. 50(4):342–246.Google Scholar
  75. Rajan, S., Ahn, J., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Yousef A. E., 2006a, Combined Pressure-Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Spores in Mashed Egg Patty Mince, J. Food Prot. (In press.).Google Scholar
  76. Rajan, S., Pandrangi, S., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Yousef A.E., 2006b, Inactivation of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores in egg patties by pressure assisted thermal processing, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. (In press.).Google Scholar
  77. Rasanayagam, V., Balasubramaniam, V.M., Ting, E., Sizer, C.E., Bush, C., and Anderson C., 2003, Compression Heating of Selected Fatty Food Materials During High-Pressure Processing, J. Food Sci. 68(1):254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Raso, J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Swanson B.G. 1998. Sporulation Temperature Affects Initiation of Germination and Inactivation by High Hydrostatic Pressure of Bacillus Cereus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reddy, N.R., Solomon, H.M., Fingerhut, G.A., Rhodehamel, E.J., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Palaniappan S., 1999, Inactivation Of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Spores By High Pressure Processing, J. Food. Saf. 19:277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reddy, N.R., Solomon, H.M., Tetzloff, R.C., and Rhodehamel E.J., 2003, Inactivation of Clostridium Botulinum Type A Spores by High Pressure Processing at Elevated Temperatures, J. Food Prot. 66(8):1402–1407.Google Scholar
  81. Rovere, P., Gola, S., Maggi, A., Scaramuzza, N., and Miglioli L., 1998, Studies on Bacterial Spores by Combined Pressure-Heat Treatments: Possibility to Sterilize Low-Acid Foods, in: High Pressure Food Science, Bioscience and Chemistry, N.S. Isaacs (ed.), The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 354–63.Google Scholar
  82. Rovere, P., Squarcina, N., Gola, S., Sandei, L., Iametti, S., and Carpi G., 2000, Effect of Thermal Treatment Under High Pressure on the Quality of a Meat Sauce, High Pressure Res. 19:99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sale, A.J.H., Gould, G.W., and Hamilton W.A., 1970, Inactivation of Bacterial Spores by High Hydrostatic Pressure, J. Gen. Microbiol. 60:323–334.Google Scholar
  84. Schauwecker, A., Balasubramaniam, V.M., Sadler, G., Pascall, M.A., and Adhikari C., 2002, Influence of High-Pressure Processing on Selected Polymeric Materials and on the Migration of a Pressure-Transmitting Fluid, Packaging Technol. Sci. 15:255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shearer, A.E.H., Dunne, C.P., Sikes, A., and Hoover D.G., 2000, Bacterial Spore Inhibition and Inactivation in Foods by Pressure, Chemical Preservatives, and Mild Heat, J. Food Prot. 63(11):1503–1510.Google Scholar
  86. Sizer, C.E., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Ting E., 2002, Validating High-Pressure Processes for Low-Acid Foods, Food Technol. 56(2):36–57.Google Scholar
  87. Stewart, C.M. 2005. HPP Safety and Quality Data, in: Commercializing Nonthermal Technologies, Institute of Food Technologists Continuing Technical Education Committee, New Orleans, pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  88. Stewart, C.M., Dunne, C.P., Sikes, A., and Hoover D.G., 2000, Sensitivity of Spores of Bacillus Subtilis and Clostridium Sporogenes PA 3679 to Combinations of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Other Processing Parameters, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 1(1):49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Surak, J.G., 2006, Global Harmonization: Foods Safety Management Standards, Int. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. Winter 2005/2006: 34–36.Google Scholar
  90. Taki, Y., Awano, T., Toba, S., and Mitsuura N. 1991. Sterilization of Bacillus Sp. Spores by Hydrostatic Pressure, in: High Pressure Science for Food, R. Hayashi (ed.), Sanei Pub. Co., Kyoto, pp. 217–24.Google Scholar
  91. Tapia, M.S., Arispe, I., and Martínez A., 2005, Safety and Quality in the Food Industry, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia and M.P. Cano (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 669–680.Google Scholar
  92. Ter Minassian, L., Pruzan, P. and Soulard A., 1981, Thermodynamic Properties of Water Under Pressure up to 5 Kbar and Between 28 and 120°C. Estimations in the Supercooled Region Down to -40°C, J. Chem. Phys. 75:3064–3072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ting, E., Balasubramaniam, V.M., and Raghubeer E., 2002, Determining Thermal Effects In High-Pressure Processing. Food Technol. 56(2):31–35.Google Scholar
  94. Van Loey, A., Ooms, V., Weemaes, C., van den Broeck, I., Ludikhuyze, L., Indrawati, Denys, S., and Hendrickx M., 1998, Thermal and Pressure-Temperature Degradation of Chlorophyll in Broccoli (Brassica Oleraces L. Italica) Juice: A Kinetic Study. J. Agr. Food Chem. 46:5289–5294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Van Opstal, I., Bagamboula, C.F., Vanmuysen, S.C.M., Wuytack, E.Y., and Michiels C.W., 2004, Inactivation of Bacillus Cereus Spores in Milk by High Pressure and Heat Treatments, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 92:227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Schepdael, L.J.M.M., de Heij, W.B.C., and Hoogland H., 2002, Method for high pressure preservation, patent: PCT WO 02/45528 A1.Google Scholar
  97. Varga, S., and Oliveira, J.C., 2000, Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Bulk Medium and Packed Containers in a Batch Retort, J. Food Eng. 44(4):191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Welti-Chanes, J., López-Malo, A., Palou, E., Bermúdez, D., Guerrero-Beltrán, J.A., and Barbosa-Cánovas G. V. 2005. Fundamentals and Applications of High Pressure Processing of Foods, in: Novel Food Processing Technologies, G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M.S. Tapia, M.P. Cano, (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 157–182.Google Scholar
  99. Wesley, R.D., Rousselle, J.R., Schwan, D.R., and Stadelman W.J., 1982, Improvement in Quality of Scrambled Egg Products Served from Steam Table Display, Poultry Sci. 61(3):457–462.Google Scholar
  100. Wilson, M.J., and Baker R., 2000, High Temperature/Ultra-High Pressure Sterilization of Foods, Patent: US 6, 086, 936.Google Scholar
  101. Wilson, M.J., and Baker R., 2003, High Temperature/Ultra-High Pressure Sterilization of Low Acid Foods, Patent: EU 1 295 537 A2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas
    • 1
  • P. Juliano
    • 2
  1. 1.Biological System Engineering DeptWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Center for Nonthermal Processing of FoodWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations