Emulsifier-Carbohydrate Interactions

  • Gerard L. Hasenhuettl

Since emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules, they interact with other polar and nonpolar ingredients commonly present in food (Gaonkar and McPherson, 2005). Interactions with water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, oils, and flavors have been studied. Interactions may be beneficial, such as retardation of staling in bread, or adverse, such as distortion of a flavor profile. Several mechanisms may be responsible for producing interactive effects: (1) Competition of emulsifiers and ingredients for the interface, (2) Competition for available water, (3) Solubility of ingredients in emulsifiers, (4) Electrostatic interactions between charged species, (5) Nonpolar interactions, or (6) physical or packing interactions, such as entanglement or crystal packing. Since more than one mechanism may be operational in a given food system, explanation of ingredient interactions are often difficult to obtain with a high degree of certainty.

Carbohydrates are ubiquitous in food products. Nutritionally, they serve as sources for rapidly available energy. They also contribute to sensory properties, such as sweetness and texture. Carbohydrates range from low molecular weight simple saccharides to highly complex structures, such as starches and hydrocolloids (Belitz et al., 2004a). Their interactions with food surfactants are extremely important in many foods, such as bakery products. Recently, the epidemics of obesity and Type II diabetes have stimulated reformulation of foods toward lower sucrose and more carbohydrates having lower glycemic indices (Warshaw and Kukami, 2004). Emulsifier carbohydrate interactions may be different in these new formulations.

This chapter will discuss carbohydrate classes where interactions have been thoroughly studied, but will also point out where not enough is known.


Electron Spin Resonance Inclusion Complex Starch Granule Wheat Starch Sucrose Ester 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard L. Hasenhuettl
    • 1
  1. 1.Port Saint LucieUSA

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