• David L. Sobel
  • Lev Elterman

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine and may be the first sign of a serious underlying disease of the urinary tract. Hematuria may be classified as either gross or microscopic. Gross hematuria is alarming to the patient and deserves a prompt, thorough investigation to determine its cause. Microscopic hematuria, however, is often an incidental finding on routine examination. Nevertheless, microscopic hematuria also deserves an investigation as to its cause. Microscopic hematuria is defined as three RBCs per high power field or greater on microscopic evaluation of the urinary sediment from two of three specimens.


Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Transitional Cell Carcinoma Microscopic Hematuria Ureteral Obstruction Urinary Cytology 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Sobel
    • 1
  • Lev Elterman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyRush-Copley Medical CenterAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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