Esophageal Atresia/Tracheoesophageal Fistula

  • Rashmi Kabre
  • Srikumar Pillai

Esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are relatively common malformations occurring in 1 in 3,500 births. Although the etiology is unknown, approximately half of these cases occur with other anomalies, with most infants having more than one malformation. Cardiac defects alone account for 35% of these anomalies. The VACTERL association (vertebral defects, anorectal malformations, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal anomalies, renal anomalies, and limb defects) has been used to describe the array of anomalies found in these patients. With high clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical management can improve survival in these infants.


Anastomotic Leak Esophageal Atresia Anorectal Malformation Tracheoesophageal Fistula Aspiration Pneumonitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashmi Kabre
    • 1
  • Srikumar Pillai
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of SurgeryJohn H. Stroger Hospital of Cook CountyChicagoUSA

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