• John D. Christein

Dysphagia, or difficultly swallowing, can be very distressful to a patient. A thorough history and physical examination may help identify the cause, which may include anatomic, physiologic, or neurologic problems. A differential diagnosis is provided in Table 52.1.


Lower Esophageal Sphincter Antireflux Procedure Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Epiphrenic Diverticulum Diverticulum Esophageal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Christein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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