• Michael D. Addis
  • William B. Inabnet

Calcium (Ca) homeostasis is maintained by the action of two hormones on three organ systems. The majority of Ca is stored in bone as hydroxyapatite, a compound that helps maintain structural integrity. Although the intravascular concentration of Ca is small, an imbalance can produce life-threatening symptoms. In plasma, 50% of Ca is unbound or ionized, whereas the remainder is bound to albumin. A change of 1 gm/ dl in serum albumin is associated with a 0.8mg/dl change in total serum calcium. Serum phosphate levels vary inversely with calcium, maintaining a normal concentration product between 30 and 40.


Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Carcinoma Neck Exploration Serum Phosphate Level Bilateral Neck Exploration 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Addis
    • 1
  • William B. Inabnet
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Vascular SurgerySaint Barnabas Medical CenterSpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of Gastrointestinal and Endocrine SurgeryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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