Application of Tropical Agro-industrial Residues as Substrate for Solid-state Fermentation Processes
In recent years, there has been constant increase in the efforts to utilize agro-industrial residues particularly those originating from tropical regions. Advances in industrial biotechnology offer ample opportunities for its economic utilization. The tropical agro-industrial residues are generated in large amounts during the processing and their disposal rather causes several environmental problems. There has been an increasing trend towards more efficient utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse, sugar cane bagasse, sugar beet pulp, coffee pulp/husk, oil cakes, apple pomace, etc. in bioprocesses as substrate (carbon source). These are utilised as a potential raw materials in bioprocesses as they provide an excellent substratum for the growth of micro-organism supplying the essential nutrients to them (Pandey and Soccol, 1998; Pandey, 1994; Pandey and Soccol, 2000; Pandey et al., 2000a; 2000b; 2000c; 2000d; Pandey, 1999a; Pandey, 1992). Several processes have been developed that utilise these as raw material for the production of bulk chemicals and value-added fine products such as ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), mushrooms, enzymes, organic acids, amino acids, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. Application of agro-industrial residues in bioprocesses on the one hand provides alternative substrates, and on other helps in solving pollution problems, which their disposal may otherwise cause. With the advent of biotechnological innovations, mainly in the area of enzyme and fermentation technology, many new avenues have opened for their effective utilization.
KeywordsSugarcane Bagasse Citric Acid Production Apple Pomace Coffee Pulp Coffee Husk
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