Production of Pigments

  • Júlio Cesar de Carvalho
  • Carlos Ricardo Soccol
  • Sumathy Babitha
  • Ashok Pandey
  • Adenise Lorenci Wojciechowski


There is a marked trend towards the use of natural additives in the food and feed industry. In the case of natural pigments, there is a renewed interest in traditional technologies for the production of pigments such as carmine (from insects), annatto and curcuma (from plants) or Monascus (from a fungus). There has also been a lot of research on new alternatives, in the last few decades. Because of the intensive metabolite production that is possible in bioprocesses, there is a high interest in pigment production by fermentation. This chapter describes in brief the importance of natural pigments, presents some of the commercially successful, discusses the potential of other microorganisms for pigment production by SSF, and finally describes aspects of the production of Monascus by solid-state fermentation.


Pigment Production Yellow Pigment Natural Pigment Monascus Pigment Orange Pigment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Júlio Cesar de Carvalho
    • 1
  • Carlos Ricardo Soccol
    • 1
  • Sumathy Babitha
    • 2
  • Ashok Pandey
    • 2
  • Adenise Lorenci Wojciechowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology DivisionFederal University of ParanáBrazil
  2. 2.Biotechnology DivisionNational Institute for Interdisciplinary Science & TechnologyIndia

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