Production of Spores

  • Sumitra Ramachandran
  • Christian Larroche
  • Ashok Pandey


Spores are generally defined as small reproductive bodies that get detached from the microbial species to produce a new offspring. In the process they do not fuse with other reproductive bodies, but get germinated sooner or later. They widely vary in origin, size, shape, pigmentation, biological functions, etc. Microbial spores have a diameter ranging between 1-50 µm. However, the largest spores are the fungal ascospores, for eg. Varicellaria microsticta, measuring 340 x 115 µm; the smallest spores are bacterial endospores measuring about 0.25 µm in diameter. Bacterial endospores remain dormant in the same place of origin and help the species to pass through an unfavourable period; such spores are termed as resting spores. Also, there are dispersal spores, those of Ascomycetes, whose explosive asci bursts with a hydrostatic pressure getting scattered even upto distance of 40 cm (Wolken et al., 2003).


Wheat Bran Initial Moisture Content Spore Production Trichoderma Harzianum Beauveria Bassiana 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumitra Ramachandran
    • 1
  • Christian Larroche
    • 1
  • Ashok Pandey
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Génie Chimique et Biochimique (LGCB)CUST-Université Biaise PascalAubière CedexFrance
  2. 2.Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology DivisionFederal University of ParanáCuritiba-PRBrazil

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